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Wind, wave and tide make up more than 80% of Scotland's renewable energy potential

The production of renewable energy in Scotland is an issue that has come to the fore in technical, economic, and political terms during the opening years of the 21st century.[1] The natural resource base for renewables is extraordinary by European, and even global standards. In addition to an existing installed capacity[a] of 1.3 Gigawatts (GW) of hydro-electric schemes, Scotland has an estimated potential of 36.5 GW of wind and 7.5 GW of tidal power, 25% of the estimated total capacity for the European Union and up to 14 GW of wave power potential, 10% of EU capacity.[2][3] The renewable electricity generating capacity may be 60 GW or more, considerably greater than the existing capacity from all Scottish fuel sources of 10.3 GW.[2][4]

Much of this potential remains untapped, but continuing improvements in engineering are enabling more of the renewable resources to be utilised. Fears regarding "peak oil" and climate change have driven the subject high up the political agenda and are also encouraging the use of various biofuels. Although the finances of many projects remain either speculative or dependent on subsidies, it is probable that there has been a significant, and in all likelihood long-term change, in the underpinning economics.[5]

In addition to planned increases in both large-scale generating capacity and microsystems using renewable sources, various related schemes to reduce carbon emissions are being researched.[6] Although there is significant support from the public, private and community-led sectors, concerns about the effect of the technologies on the natural environment have been expressed. There is also an emerging political debate about the relationship between the siting, and the ownership and control of these widely distributed resources.[7]

Szablon:Renewable energy sources

Realisation of the potential[edytuj | edytuj kod]

In January 2006 the total installed electrical generating capacity from all forms of renewable energy was less than 2 GW, about a fifth of the total electrical production.[4] By January 2007 wind power capacity, which has been growing rapidly, reached 1 GW capacity, and the total for renewables had grown to over 2.3 GW.[8] By the end of the year renewables are expected to contribute 19% of total electrical production,[9] about 4% of all energy usage.[10] It should be borne in mind that electricity production is only part of the overall energy use budget. In 2002, Scotland consumed a total of 175 Terawatt-hours (TWh)[11] of energy in all forms, some 2% less than in 1990. Of this, only 20% was consumed in the form of electricity by end users, the great majority of energy utilised being from the burning of oil (41%) and gas (36%).[12][13]

Scotland also has significant quantities of fossil fuel deposits, including 62.4% of the EU's proven reserves of oil, 12.5% of the EU's proven reserves of gas and 69% of UK coal reserves.[3] Nonetheless, the Scottish Government has set ambitious targets for renewable energy production. The aim is for 18% of Scotland's electricity production to be generated by renewable sources by 2010, rising to 40% by 2020.[14]

An important reason for this ambition is growing international concern about human-induced climate change. The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution's proposal that carbon dioxide emissions should be reduced by 60% was incorporated into the UK government's 2003 Energy White Paper.[2] The 2006 Stern Review proposed a 55% reduction by 2030.[15] The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report[16] has further increased the profile of the issue.[17]

Wind power[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: Wind power in Scotland.

Szablon:See

5 MW wind turbine under construction at Nigg fabrication yard on the Cromarty Firth

Wind power is a renewable technology and produces no greenhouse gases during operation, although inevitably some are produced during construction and transport. The precise amounts involved are a matter of controversy. Manufacturers typically state that carbon emissions are 'paid back' within 3–18 months of production, but recent research claims that turbines located on peat bogs create incidental emissions that may increase this to 8 years or more.[18]

Wind turbines are the fastest growing of the renewable energy technologies in Scotland. Most turbines in the EU produce electricity at an average of 25% of their rated maximum power due to the intermittency of wind resources,[19] but Scotland's wind regime provides average of 40% or higher on the west and northern coasts. A small wind farm on Shetland with three Vestas V47 660 kW turbines recently achieved a world record of 58% capacity over the course of a year.[20]

There are now numerous large on-shore power stations including Black Law rated at over 96 MW, Hadyard Hill, which is the first wind farm in the UK able to generate over 100 MW, and Whitelee, a 322 MW project under construction.[21][22][23] Nevertheless the siting of turbines has become a controversial issue amongst those concerned about the value of natural landscapes.[24]

It is estimated that 11.5 GW of onshore wind potential exists, enough to provide 45 TWh of energy. More than double this amount exists on offshore sites[2] where mean wind speeds are greater than on land.[25] The total offshore potential is estimated at 25 GW, which although more expensive to install, could be enough to provide almost half the total energy used in Scotland.[2] The first offshore turbines are under commissioning for Talisman Energy, who are erecting two large machines Szablon:Convert offshore adjacent to the Beatrice oilfield. These turbines are Szablon:Convert high with the blades Szablon:Convert long and will have a capacity of 5 MW each, making them the largest in the world.[26][27]

Wave power[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Szablon:See Various systems are under development at present aimed at harnessing the enormous potential available for wave power off Scotland's coasts. Pelamis Wave Power (previously Ocean Power Delivery) are an Edinburgh-based company whose Pelamis system has been tested off Orkney and Portugal. These devices are Szablon:Convert long, Szablon:Convert diameter floating tubes which capture the mechanical action of the waves. Future wave farm projects could involve an arrangement of interlinked 750 kW machines connected to shore by a subsea transmission cable.[28]

Another approach is used by the LIMPET 500 (Land Installed Marine Power Energy Transformer) energy converter installed on the island of Islay by Wavegen Ltd. It is a shore-based unit and generates power when waves run up the beach, creating pressure inside an inclined oscillating water column. This in turn creates pneumatic power which drives twin 250 kW the generators. Islay LIMPET was opened in 2001 and is the world's first commercial scale wave-energy device. The manufacturers are now developing a larger system in the Faroe Islands.[29][30]

Funding for the UK's first wave farm was announced by the Scottish Executive on February 22 2007. It will be the world's largest, with a capacity of 3 MW generated by four Pelamis machines at a cost of over 4 million pounds.[31] The funding is part of a new £13 million funding package for marine power projects in Scotland that will also support developments to Aquamarine's Oyster and Ocean Power Technology's PowerBuoy wave systems, AWS Ocean Energy's sub-sea wave devices, ScotRenewables' 1.2 MW floating rotor device, Cleantechcom's tidal surge plans for the Churchill barriers between various Orkney islands, the Open Hydro tidal ring turbines, and further developments to the Wavegen system proposed for Lewis as well as a further £2.5 million for the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) based in Orkney.[32] This is a new Scottish Executive-backed research facility that has installed a wave testing system at Billia Croo on the Orkney mainland and a tidal power testing station on the nearby island of Eday.[33] At the official opening of the Eday project the site was described as "the first of its kind in the world set up to provide developers of wave and tidal energy devices with a purpose-built performance testing facility.".[34]

Tidal power[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Szablon:See

European Marine Energy Centre Tidal power test site on Eday under construction

Unlike wind and wave, tidal power is an inherently predictable source. However the technology is in its infancy and numerous devices are in the prototype stages. Today we know that a tall tubular tower with three blades attached to it is the typical profile of a wind turbine, but twenty-five years ago there were a wide variety of different systems being tested.[35] This is the current situation with regard to tidal power. Some systems capture energy from the tides in a vertical direction. The tide comes in and raises the water level in a basin. As the tide lowers the water in the basin is discharged through a turbine. Tidal stream power captures energy from the flow of tides, usually using underwater plant resembling a small wind turbine. To date the only installed tidal power plant of any size is the 240 MW rated barrage scheme at the Rance Estuary in Brittany, which has been operating successfully for more than 25 years, although there are a number of other much smaller projects around the world.[36] An example is Marine Current Turbines SeaGen 1.2 MW device at Strangford Lough in Northern Ireland, which is the first commercial scale tidal turbine in the world.[37]

The Pentland Firth between Orkney and mainland Scotland has been described as the "Saudi Arabia of tidal power"[38] and may be capable of generating up to 10 GW.[39] Several other tidal sites with considerable potential exist in the Orkney archipelago.[40] Tidal races on the west coast at Kyle Rhea between Skye and Lochalsh, the Grey Dog north of Scarba, the Dorus Mor off Crinan and the Gulf of Corryvreckan also offer significant prospects.[39][41]

Hydro-electric power[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Szablon:See

A typical Highland hydro-electric dam at Loch Laggan

Scotland has 85% of the UK's hydro-electric energy resource,[42] much of it developed by the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board in the 1950s. The ‘Hydro Board’, which brought 'power from the glens', was a nationalised industry at the time although it was privatised in 1989 and is now part of Scottish and Southern Energy plc.

Numerous remote straths were flooded by these schemes, many of the largest of which involved tunneling through mountains as well as damming rivers. Emma Wood, the author of a study of these pioneers wrote:

I heard about drowned farms and hamlets, the ruination of the salmon-fishing and how Inverness might be washed away if the dams failed inland. I was told about the huge veins of crystal they found when they were tunnelling deep under the mountains.[43]

Current capacity is 1.33 GW[4] and includes major developments such as the 120 MW Breadalbane scheme and the 245 MW Tummel system. It is estimated that little more than another 0.3 GW remains available to develop.[2] There is further potential for new pump storage schemes that would work well with intermittent sources of power such as wind and wave. Examples include the 440 MW Ben Cruachan and 300 MW Falls of Foyers schemes.[44] The 100 MW Glen Doe project, currently under construction and Scotland's largest civil engineering project, is the first large scale scheme in Scotland for almost fifty years but is likely to be one of the last of its kind.[45][46]

There is certainly further potential for small-scale run of the river local schemes such as the existing one in Knoydart and planned for Kingussie,[47] but the total effect of such schemes, although important locally, will be tiny on a national basis. The production of hydro electricity has a long history in Scotland but given that the available catchment areas have practically all been exploited it is unlikely that there will be scope for the further development of significant amounts of new hydro generation.[48]

Biofuels[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Szablon:See

Biodiesel[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Various biodiesel schemes exist at present, and as with most renewables, interest is growing in the subject. Westray Development Trust operate a biodiesel vehicle fueled by the residual vegetable oils from the Orkney archipelago fish and chip outlets.[49] On a larger scale Argent Energy's plant in Motherwell recycles tallow and used cooking oil to produce 50 million litres of biodiesel per annum.[50]

A major benefit of biodiesel is lower carbon emissions, although the energy balance of liquid biofuels is a matter of controversy.[51] Research is being undertaken into converting rapeseed oil into biodiesel,[49] and the European biofuels directive intends to ensure that 5.75% Europe's transport fuel comes from renewable sources by 2010. However, there is only enough used vegetable oil in the UK to contribute 0.38% of current road fuel demand and if all the arable land in the UK were turned over to biofuel crops this would still only satisfy 22% of the existing requirement for road transport. Serious concerns regarding the ethics of growing biodiesel in developing countries and importing the fuel to Europe have been raised on the grounds that they may replace much needed food crops.[5] Converting any mainstream transport system to a renewable one also involves the conundrum that for consumers to use it the infrastructure must be in place, but high levels of use may be required to finance the infrastructure.[5] Developments are thus slow at present and renewably powered vehicles very much the exception.

Due to the relatively short growing season for sugar producing crops, ethanol is not commercially produced as a fuel in Scotland at present.[52] However there are encouraging developments in cellulosic decomposition that might enable grass or tree crops to be used to this end in future and which may prove to have lower net carbon emissions than other production techniques.[53][54]

Biogas, anaerobic digestion and landfill gas[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Biogas, or landfill gas, is a biofuel produced through the intermediary stage of anaerobic digestion consisting mainly of 45–90% biologically produced methane and carbon dioxide. In early 2007 a thermophilic anaerobic digesiton facility was commissioned in Stornoway in the Western Isles. The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Renewable Energy Association are also leading the way towards the establishment of a digestate standard to facilitate the use of solid outputs from digesters on land. Anaerobic digestion and mechanical biological treatment facilities have been planned at a number of other locations in Scotland, such as Westray.[55]

It has been recognised that biogas (mainly methane) – produced from the anaerobic digestion of organic matter – is potentially a valuable and prolific feedstock. It is estimated that 0.4 GW of generating capacity might be available from agricultural waste in Scotland.[2] The Scottish Executive and SEPA has funded seven small scale farm trial plants with the British anaerobic digestion company Greenfinch in Southwest Scotland.[56] Landfill sites have the potential for a further 0.07 GW. Landfill sites such as the Avondale Landfill in Falkirk utilise landfill gas (biogas) to the maximum extent.

Solid biomass[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Szablon:See Wood fuel almost certainly exceeds hydroelectric and wind as the largest source of renewable energy at present. Scotland's forests, which currently make up 60% of the UK resource base,[57] could provide up to 1 million tonnes of wood fuel per annum.[30] The biomass energy supply in Scotland could reach 450 MW or higher in coming years, (predominantly from wood), with power stations requiring 4,500–5,000 oven dry tonnes per annum per megawatt of generating capacity.[57] The energy company E.ON has constructed a 44 MW biomass power station at Lockerbie using locally sourced crops[58] while the smaller but not insignificant EPR Westfield power plant in Fife produces 9.8 MW of output using chicken litter as fuel.[59] The Forestry Commission are developing a Scottish Biomass Action Plan in conjunction with the Scottish Executive, and the latter is expected to provide a £7.5 million grant scheme to support biomass energy. There is growing demand for automatic wood pellet boilers which can be as convenient to use as conventional central heating systems, and which may be cheaper to run as well as being carbon neutral.[30]

There is also local potential for energy crops such as short-rotation willow or poplar coppice, michanthus energy grass, agricultural wastes such as straw and manure, and forestry residues.[30][60] These crops could provide 0.8 GW of generating capacity.[2]

Micro systems[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Whisky distilleries have a role to play in keeping Scots warm

The Energy Savings Trust has estimated that micro-generation could provide a significantly increased proportion of the UK's electricity demand by 2050[13] although only a fraction of this would come from renewable sources.[61] The current Scottish output is negligible. In May 2006 Communities Minister Malcolm Chisholm launched a Planning Advice Note aimed at promoting micro-renewables.[62] Small-scale 'wind2heat' projects, which use wind turbines to power electrical storage heaters directly,[63] have proven to be successful in remoter rural areas;[64] as have various other local schemes such as air source heat pumps.[65]

Whisky distilleries may have a locally important part to play. Caithness Heat and Power have announced plans to tackle fuel poverty in Wick by utilising a wood chip CHP scheme in partnership with the Old Pulteney Distillery.[66] On the island of Islay, a swimming pool is heated using waste heat from the Bowmore distillery.[67] In Edinburgh, Tynecastle High School, due to be completed in 2010, will be heated by waste heat from the neighbouring North British Distillery.[68]

Solar energy[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Szablon:See

The Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh. Solar panels are just visible left of centre

Despite Scotland's relatively low level of sunshine hours, solar panels can work effectively as they are capable of producing hot water even in cloudy weather.[69][70] The technology was developed in the 1970s and is well-established with various installers in place such as Solar Power Scotland of Montrose, although AES Solar based in Forres (who provided the panels for the Scottish Parliament building)[71] are Scotland's only manufacturer.

There are few examples of photovoltaic cells in Scotland as the price is not currently competitive. The largest installation in Scotland is a 21 kWp system at the Sir E. Scott secondary school in Tarbert, Harris.[72] The UK's practicable resource is estimated at 7.2 TWh per annum,[13] which in the Scottish context is the approximate equivalent of 70 MW or less of installed capacity.

Another method of harnessing solar energy being introduced to Scotland is the Road Energy System. This uses water pipes buried beneath a layer of tarmac. In the summer, the dark asphalt is heated by the sun which in turn heats the water in the pipes. This water can be stored in an underground aquifer and the heat extracted in winter using a heat pump. The temperature of the extracted water is typically around 20°C, meaning it will take less energy to heat than mains water. An area of tarmac measuring 10 x 40 square metres can generate 108 MW of energy per annum. Conversely, the system can also be used for cooling water, thus also cooling buildings. [73] This technology can also be used to warm or cool down roads, keeping them ice-free in the winter and preventing the tarmac from softening due to overheating in the summer. This prolongs the life of the tarmac.[74] The Road Energy System was developed by a Dutch company, and has been licensed by an Ullapool-based company named Invisible Energy Systems, who have installed the technology in their car park.[75]

Geothermal energy[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Szablon:See Geothermal energy is obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself. Most systems in Scotland provide heating through a ground source heat pump which brings energy to the surface via shallow pipe works. An example is the Glenalmond Street project in Shettleston, which uses a combination of solar and geothermal energy to heat 16 houses. Water in a coal mine Szablon:Convert below ground level is heated by geothermal energy and maintained at a temperature of about 12 °C (54 °F) throughout the year. The warmed water is raised and passed through a heat pump, boosting the temperature to 55 °C (131 °F), and is then distributed to the houses providing heating to radiators.[76]

Although the pumps may not be powered from renewable sources, up to four times the energy used can be recovered. Installation costs can vary from £7,000 to £10,000, and grants may be available from the Scottish Community and Householders Renewables Initiative operated by HICEC for domestic properties up to a maximum of £4,000.[77] Perhaps up to 7.6 TWh of energy is available on an annual basis from this source.[78]

Other means of reducing carbon emissions[edytuj | edytuj kod]

It is clear that if carbon emissions are to be reduced, a combination of increased production from renewables and decreased consumption of energy in general and fossil fuels in particular will be required.[79] On the latter front, Gordon Brown, the then UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, announced in November 2006 that within a decade all new houses would have to be 'zero carbon'.[80] A variety of other options exist, most of which may affect development of renewable technologies even if they are not means of producing energy from renewable sources themselves.

Other renewable options[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Various other ideas for renewable energy in the early stages of development, such as ocean thermal energy conversion, deep lake water cooling, and blue energy, have received little attention in Scotland, presumably because the potential is so significant for less speculative technologies.

Carbon offsetting[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Carbon offsetting involves individuals or organisations compensating for their use of fossil fuels by making payments to projects that aim to neutralise the effect of these carbon emissions. Although the idea has become fashionable, the theory has received serious criticism of late.[81][82]

Nonetheless, a credible option may be to plant trees within the local bioregion and maintain the forest on a permanent basis, thus locking up carbon produced by burning fossil fuels. In British growing conditions this method can compensate for carbon at a rate of 200 tonnes per square kilometre (0.89 tons/acre) planted over a 100 year period. Thus a Szablon:Convert plantation could uptake 200 tonnes (220 tons) of carbon over twenty-five years.[83] This is the equivalent of 10,000 tonnes (11,000 short tons) of carbon dioxide.[84] The weaknesses of the approach include uncertainty as to whether the planting might have occurred anyway and who, in the future, will ensure permanence. However, there is likely to be a greater level of credibility inherent in a nearby and visible scheme than in a far-distant one.

Challenges and opportunities offered by non-renewables[edytuj | edytuj kod]

The following technologies are means of reducing the effect of carbon emissions and form an important aspect of the energy debate in Scotland and are included here for completeness. Their effect is likely to influence the future direction of commercial renewable energy, but they are not renewable forms of energy production themselves.

Carbon sequestration: Also known as carbon capture and storage, this technology involves the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is a by-product of industrial processes through its injection into oil fields. It is not a form of renewable energy production, but it may be a way to significantly reduce the effect of fossil fuels whilst renewables are commercialised. It may also be an intermediate step towards a 'hydrogen economy' (see below), which could either enable further renewable development or conceivably out-compete it. The technology has been successfully pioneered in Norway[85] but is still a relatively untried concept.

'Clean coal' technology: It is has been estimated that it will be 2020 to 2025 before any commercial-scale clean coal power stations (coal-burning power stations with carbon capture and sequestration) are widely adopted.[86] Moreover, some have criticised the clean coal approach[87] and it is at best a means of ameliorating carbon emissions. It is not a form of renewable energy production, although like carbon sequestration it offers a significant commercial challenge to renewable developments.[88][89]

Nuclear power: Renewable energy as a concept generally excludes nuclear power[90][91] although this stance has been challenged.[92][93]

Incineration: There is a successful waste-to-energy incineration plant at Lerwick in Shetland which burns 22,000 tonnes (24,250 tons) of waste every year and provides district heating to over 600 customers.[94] Although such plants generate carbon emissions through the combustion of the biological material and plastic wastes (which derive from fossil fuels), they also reduce the damage done to the atmosphere from the creation of methane in landfill sites. This is a much more damaging greenhouse gas than the carbon dioxide the burning process produces,[5] although other systems which do not involve district heating may have a similar carbon footprint to straightforward landfill degradation.[95]

Hydrogen[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Hypod and windmills at the PURE site on Unst

Although hydrogen offers significant potential as an alternative to hydrocarbons as a carrier of energy, neither hydrogen itself nor the associated fuel cell technologies are sources of energy in themselves. Nevertheless, the combination of renewable technologies and hydrogen is of considerable interest to those seeking alternatives to fossil fuels.[96] There are a number of Scottish projects involved in this research, supported by the Scottish Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Association.[97]

The PURE project on Unst in Shetland is a ground-breaking training and research centre which uses a combination of the ample supplies of wind power and fuel cells to create a wind hydrogen system. Two 15 kW turbines are attached to a 'Hypod' fuel cell, which in turn provides power for heating systems, the creation of stored liquid hydrogen and an innovative fuel-cell driven car. The project is community-owned and part of the Unst Partnership, the community's development trust.[98]

In the Western Isles a plan to enable a £10 million waste management plant into a hydrogen production facility was announced in June 2006. The Council have also agreed to purchase hydrogen-fuelled buses and hope the new plant, which will be constructed in partnership with the local Hydrogen Research Laboratory, will supply island filling stations and houses and the industrial park at Arnish.[99]

ITI Energy is a company with the aim of funding Research and Development programmes in the energy sector. It is a division of ITI Scotland, which also includes a life sciences and digital media division. ITI Energy has attracted the Alterg project, a French company that is developing technology for the cost-effective storage of hydrogen.[100][101]

A very different approach is proposed by BP in partnership with Scottish and Southern Energy for the creation of a hydrogen-based power station at Peterhead. The project will take natural gas extracted from the North Sea, crack the gas to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide, and burn the hydrogen as the fuel source to create electricity in a 475 MW power station. The CO2 will be returned to the Miller field reservoir more than Szablon:Convert under the seabed in a process called carbon sequestration (see above). The scheme was expected to be in production by 2009 at a projected cost of $600 million, although there is considerable doubt that sufficient support will be forthcoming from the UK government to enable this to occur. If completed, the plant would be the first industrial-scale, hydrogen power station in the world.[6][102]

Local vs national concerns[edytuj | edytuj kod]

"A battle that pitches environmentalists against conservationists."

A significant feature of Scotland's renewable potential is that the resources are largely distant from the main centres of population. This is by no means coincidental. The power of wind, wave and tide on the north and west coasts and for hydro in the mountains makes for dramatic scenery, but sometimes harsh living conditions. W. H. Murray described the Hebrides as "the Isles on the Edge of the Sea where men are welcome—if they are hard in body and in spirit tenacious."[103]

This happenstance of geography and climate has created various tensions. There is clearly a significant difference between a renewable energy production facility of modest size providing an island community with all its energy needs, and an industrial scale power station in the same location that is designed to export power to far distant urban locations. Thus, plans for one of the world's largest onshore windfarms on the Hebridean island of Lewis, have generated considerable debate.[24] A related issue is the planned high-voltage BeaulyDenny power line which would bring electricity from renewable projects in the north and west to the cities of the south. The matter has gone to a public inquiry and has been described by Ian Johnston of The Scotsman as a "battle that pitches environmentalists against conservationists and giant energy companies against aristocratic landowners and clan chiefs".[104]

There is considerable support for community-scale energy projects.[105] For example, Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland, has stated that "we can think big by delivering small" and aspires to have a "million Scottish households with access to their own or community renewable generation within ten years".[38] The John Muir Trust has also stated that "the best renewable energy options around wild land are small-scale, sensitively sited and adjacent to the communities directly benefiting from them",[106] although even community-owned schemes can prove controversial.[107]

A related issue is the position of Scotland within the United Kingdom. It has been alleged that UK transmission pricing structures are weighted against the development of renewables in Scotland,[108][109][110] a debate which highlights the contrast between the sparsely populated north of Scotland and the highly urbanised south and east of England. Although the ecological footprints of Scotland and England are similar the relationship between this footprint and the biocapacities of the respective countries are not. Scotland's biocapacity (a measure of the biologically productive area) is 4.52 global hectares (gha) per head, some 15% less than the current ecological effect.[111] In other words, with a 15% reduction in consumption, the Scottish population could live within the productive capacity of the land to support them. However, the UK ecological footprint is more than three times the biocapacity, which is only 1.6 gha head, amongst the lowest in Europe.[112][113] Thus, to achieve the same end in the UK context, consumption would have to be reduced by about 66%.

The developed world's economy is presently very dependent on inexpensive 'point-source' fossil fuels. Scotland, as a relatively sparsely populated country with significant renewable resources, is in a unique position to demonstrate how the transition to a low-carbon, widely distributed energy economy may be undertaken. A balance will need to be struck between supporting this transition and providing exports to the economies of densely populated regions in the Central Belt and elsewhere, as they seek their own solutions. The tension between local and national needs in the Scottish context may therefore also play out on the wider UK and European stage.[114]

Promotion of renewables[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Growing national concerns regarding 'Peak Oil' and climate change have driven the subject of renewable energy high up the political agenda. Various public bodies and public-private partnerships have been created to develop the potential. The Scottish Renewables Forum is an important intermediary organisation for the industry, hosting the annual Green Energy Awards. The Highlands and Islands Community Energy Company (HICEC) provides advice, grant funding and finance for renewable energy projects developed by community groups in the north and west of Scotland. Aberdeen Renewable Energy Group (AREG) is a public-private partnership created to identify and promote renewable energy opportunities for businesses in the north-east.[115]

The Forestry Commission is active in promoting the biomass potential. The Climate Change Business Delivery Group aims to act as a way for businesses to share best practice and address the climate change challenge. Numerous universities are playing a role in supporting energy research under the Supergen programme, including fuel cell research at St Andrews, marine technologies at Edinburgh, distributed power systems at Strathclyde[58] and biomass crops at the UHI Millennium Institute's Orkney College.[116]

Recent events[edytuj | edytuj kod]

New data appears on a regular basis and milestones in 2007-8 include the following.

In February 2007 the commissioning of the Braes of Doune wind farm took the UK renewables installed capacity up to 2GW.[117] Total Scottish capacity at October 2007 is 1.13GW from 760 turbines.[118]

Also during 2007 Scottish and Southern Energy plc in conjunction with the University of Strathclyde began the implementation of a 'Regional Power Zone' in the Orkney archipelago. This ground-breaking scheme (that may be the first of its kind in the world) involves 'active network management' that will make better use of the existing infrastructure and allow a further 15MW of new 'non-firm generation' output from renewables onto the network.[119][120] Heat and Power Ltd. of Westray are involved in developing an innovative digestor system that is being trialled at Tuquoy farm. Designed by Sam Harcus and Colin Risbridger, it is capable of handling up to 1,500 tonnes of feedstock per annum. Scottish & Southern Energy have been asked to provide for an export capacity of 40kWe. The aim is to help move the farm towards being powered by 100% renewable energy.[121][122]

Discussions between the Scottish and Norwegian governments aimed at creating a sub-sea grid to take renewable energy from Scotland to the European mainland are planned for early 2008.[123]

In January 2008 it was reported that Professor Graeme Walker of the University of Abertay is leading a project aimed at using grain that is a by-product of whisky distilling as a biofuel.[124] In the same month new targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 were announced. Maf Smith, director of the Sustainable Development Commission in Scotland said "Governments across the world are shying away from taking the necessary action. The Scottish Government must be commended for its intention to lead the way".[125]

In February 2008 plans to build a 10MW prototype tidal energy plant in the Pentland Firth were announced by Tocardo Tidal Energy Ltd. of Wick. Production is expected to commence in 2009.[126][127]

Summary of Scotland's resource potential[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Technology Capacity in 2006 (GW) Potential capacity (GW) Potential energy (TWh)
per annum
Onshore wind 0.94 11.50 45.0
Offshore wind 0 25.00 82.0
Wave 0.00027 14.00 45.7
Tidal stream 0 7.50 33.5
Hydro 1.34 1.63 5.52
Wood 0.012 0.45 1.8?
Biomass (non wood)   0.84 6.6
Biodiesel   0.14 1.0
Landfill gas 0.061 0.07 0.6
Geothermal   1.50? 7.6
Solar     5.8
Total 2.4 62.63 236.6

Table notes

a. ^  Note on 'installed capacity' and 'potential energy'. The former is an estimate of the maximum productive output of a given technology or individual generation station at a single point in time. The latter takes into account the likely intermittency of energy supply and is a measure of output over a period of time. Thus, for example, individual wind turbines may have a 'capacity factor' of between 15% and 45% depending on their location, with a higher capacity factor giving a greater potential energy output for a given installed capacity. The 'potential energy' column is thus an estimate based on a variety of assumptions including the installed capacity. Although 'potential energy' is in some ways a more useful method of comparing the current output and future potential of different technologies, using it would require cumbersome explanations of all the assumptions involved in each example, so installed capacity figures are generally used.

b. Table notes and sources:

Total capacity from all sources in 2006 was estimated at 10.3 GW[4] and 9.8 GW.[3] It is estimated by RSPB Scotland et al (February 2006)[2] that electricity output would decline from the current total of 50 TWh per annum to about a third of this figure by 2020 due to decommissioning of existing non-renewable capacity if no new capacity was installed. In 2006 total energy demand was 177.8 TWh.[128] Electricity makes up 20% of total energy use, but about 15 TWh are exported or lost in transmission.[2]
All figures above are from RSPB Scotland et al (February 2006)[2] except as otherwise identified below. The main source assumes grid capacity is available. Without this the potential drops significantly to circa 33 TWh.
Current renewable capacity source:[8] From this document 'Biomass electricity' of 12 MW is entered above as 'Wood' and 'Energy from Waste' of 61 MW as 'Landfill gas'.
The tidal potential of the Pentland Firth alone is estimated elsewhere at over 10 GW.[39]
Potential hydro production source: extrapolated from 2004 data in[42]
Potential wood production source:[57]
Potential geothermal energy source:[78]
Potential biomass energy is also estimated at 13.5 TWh[78]
Potential solar energy source:[78]
Potential Energy: '?' indicates an unsourced estimate based on potential capacity. Conversely, geothermal potential capacity is estimated from potential output.
Micro generation (including solar) is estimated as having the potential of producing up to 40% of current electrical demand by 2050 i.e. circa 14 TWh.[13] The above figures assume 12% by 2020.
Blank entries mean no data is available. In the cases of the current capacity of biomass, biodiesel and geothermal these will have been very small.

See also[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Przypisy

  1. See for example: Scottish Executive (2005) Choosing Our Future: Scotland's Sustainable Development Strategy. Edinburgh.
  2. 2,00 2,01 2,02 2,03 2,04 2,05 2,06 2,07 2,08 2,09 2,10 RSPB Scotland, WWF Scotland and FOE Scotland (February 2006) The Power of Scotland: Cutting Carbon with Scotland's Renewable Energy. RSPB et al.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 A Scottish Energy Review. (November 2005) Scottish National Party Framework Paper. Edinburgh.
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 4,3 Scottish Renewables (January 2006) Market and Planning Report. Issue No 4.
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 5,3 Monbiot, George (2006) Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning. London. Allen Lane.
  6. 6,0 6,1 "Peterhead hydrogen project". BP. [dostęp 2007-02-02].
  7. HICEC. (2006) Highlands and Islands Community Energy Company Annual Review. (PDF). Inverness. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  8. 8,0 8,1 "Green Energy Awards—Review No.33". Scottish Renewables, December 2006. [dostęp 2007-04-19].
  9. "Scottish Renewables FAQ". [dostęp 2007-04-19].
  10. The bulk of electricity production is derived from gas and oil. 2002 figures used in RSPB Scotland et al (2006) op cit are gas (34%), oil (28%), coal (18%) and nuclear (17%), with renewables 3% (principally hydro-electric), prior to the substantial growth in wind power output.
  11. A Gigawatt (GW) is a measure of productive capacity. Terawatt-hours (TWh) measure actual output. Thus, an 8GW power station operating ten hours per day will produce 8x10=80 TWh of electricity. Whenever possible this article refers to predictions of maximum output in GW. Using energy productions in TWh might be more useful in some ways but would tend to obscure the underlying assumptions unless every reference included a measure for maximum output, capacity factor and assumed production, which might prove cumbersome. See also Summary of Scotland's resource potential Note a.
  12. AEA Technology. (January 2006) Scottish Energy Study. Summary Report for the Scottish Executive. ISBN 0 7559 1308 6
  13. 13,0 13,1 13,2 13,3 The role of nuclear power in a low carbon economy. (2006) (PDF) Sustainable Development Commission. London.
  14. Scotland's Renewable Energy Potential: Realising the 2020 Target—Future Generation Group Report (2005) Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland (FREDS). Edinburgh. ISBN 0 7559 4721 5
  15. Stern, Sir Nicholas (2006) The Economics of Climate Change. London. HM Treasury. ISBN 0-521-70080-9
  16. "Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Working Group 1. [dostęp 2007-04-06].
  17. The press reports are voluminous. See for example: "A Winter Wonderland" (10 December 2006) Edinburgh. Scotland on Sunday.; "Final Warning" (3 February 2007) London. The Independent.
  18. Douglas E. (8 July 2006) "Gone with the Wind". London. New Scientist.
  19. de Noord, M. et al: Potentials and Costs for Renewable Electricity Generation: A data overview. ECN. [dostęp 2007-02-04].
  20. Burradale Wind Farm Shetland Islands. REUK.co.uk. [dostęp 2007-09-03]. This record is claimed by Burradale wind farm, located just a few miles outside Lerwick and operated by Shetland Aerogenerators Ltd. Since opening in 2000, the turbines at this wind farm have had an average capacity factor of 52% and, according to this report, in 2005 averaged a world record 57.9%.
  21. "Scotland Starts Work on 140-Turbine Onshore Windfarm" RenewableEnergyAccess.com (13 October 2006) Retrieved on 29 August 2007
  22. "Hadyard Hill becomes the first wind farm in the UK to generate over 100 MW of power." BWEA News press release (11 April 2006) Retrieved on 29 August 2007.
  23. "UK's most powerful wind farm could power Paisley." (January 2006) BWEA News press release. Retrieved on 29 August 2007
  24. 24,0 24,1 "Wind power dilemma for Lewis". BBC News. [dostęp 2007-02-04].
  25. Archer, Cristina L. and Jacobson, Mark Z. (2005) Evaluation of global wind power. Journal of Geophysical Research—Atmospheres. Retrieved on 30 January 2006.
  26. "Beatrice Wind Farm Demonstrator Project FAQ". Talisman Energy. [dostęp 2007-02-06].
  27. "Worlds Largest Wind Turbine". REUK.co.uk. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  28. "Pelamis wave power". Ocean Power Delivery. [dostęp 2007-02-03].
  29. Wavegen LIMPET system. Wavegen. [dostęp 2007-02-03].
  30. 30,0 30,1 30,2 30,3 "Energy from our trees and forests". renewscotland. [dostęp 2007-02-07].
  31. "Orkney to get 'biggest' wave farm" BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
  32. Johnston, Ian (21 February 2007) "Scotland seas into the future". Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  33. European Marine Energy Centre. [dostęp 2007-02-03].
  34. First Minister Opens New Tidal Energy Facility at EMEC. 2007-09-28. [dostęp 2007-10-01].  Cytat: The centre offers developers the opportunity to test prototype devices in unrivalled wave and tidal conditions. Wave and tidal energy converters are connected to the National Grid via seabed cables running from open-water test berths. Testing takes place in a wide range of sea and weather conditions, with comprehensive round-the-clock monitoring.
  35. See for example Bannister, W.S. and Gair, S. The Development of a Straight-bladed Vertical-axis Wind Turbine in Twidell, John (1981) Energy for Rural and Island Communities. Oxford. Pergamon.
  36. Shaw, T.L.: "La Rance Tidal Power Barrage: Ecological Observations relevant to a Severn Barrage Project". DTI. [dostęp 2007-02-06].
  37. "Marine Current Turbines SeaGen" Autodesk Sustainability Center. Retrieved 29 May 2008.
  38. 38,0 38,1 "Small Country Thinks Big" in "Scottish Renewables Review No 32". Scottish Renewables, November 2006. [dostęp 2007-09-05].
  39. 39,0 39,1 39,2 "Marine Briefing" (December 2006) Scottish Renewables Forum. Glasgow.
  40. "Orkney Renewable Energy Forum: Marine Energy". Orkney Renewable Energy Forum. [dostęp 2007-02-04].
  41. Murray, W.H. (1973) The Islands of Western Scotland. London. Eyre Methuen.
  42. 42,0 42,1 Renewable Energy Statistics Database for the United Kingdom. Restats. [dostęp 2007-04-06].
  43. Wood, Emma (2004) The Hydro Boys: Pioneers of Renewable Energy. Edinburgh. Luath Press. ISBN 1 84282 047 8
  44. "Power Stations in the United Kingdom (operational at the end of May 2004)". Powerstationeffects.co.uk. [dostęp 2007-02-06].
  45. "Glendoe Hydro scheme" Scottish and Southern Energy. Retrieved on 28 August 2007.
  46. HI-energy newsletter (December 2006) " Eliza Jane gets into her stride" (PDF) HIE. Inverness. Retrieved on 29 August 2007.
  47. "Hydro Scheme project on the River Gynack" Kingussie Community Development company (KCDC). Retrieved on 28 August 2007.
  48. "Evidence Received for Renewable Energy in Scotland Inquiry" (10 February 2004) Enterprise and Culture Committee. Scottish Executive. Edinburgh.
  49. 49,0 49,1 "Reinvigorating Communities through Renewable Energy": Report to RSE Inquiry. Westray Development Trust. [dostęp 2007-02-04].
  50. "About Biodiesel". Argent Energy. [dostęp 2007-02-04].
  51. See for example Pimentel, David and Patzek, Tad W. (2005) "Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower" Natural Resources Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 and "Root for ethanol now" American Coalition for Ethanol Science Journal (January 2006). Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  52. Martin, P.J., French, J., Wishart, J. and Cromarty, A. (2005) "Report to Westray Development Trust On Biofuel Crops Research At Orkney College During 2004/5". Agronomy Institute, Orkney College. This study indicated that in Scottish growing conditions oilseed rape provided significantly better relative yields of biodiesel than were available via ethanol from sugar beet.
  53. See for example "In the mix: Iogen a long-standing forerunner in cellulosic ethanol production" Industrial Biotechnology. 2006, 2(1): 11–13. Retrieved on 26 August 2007.
  54. Rhigelato, Renton, and Spracklen, D.V. (August 2007) "Carbon Mitigation by Biofuels or by Saving and Restoring Forests?" Science. Vol: 317.
  55. "Westray Zero Waste Centre: Project Summary" Transformingwastescotland.org.uk. Retrieved on 23 February 2007. This project was later abandoned however.
  56. "Farm Biogas Plants" Greenfinch. Retrieved on 22 February 2007.
  57. 57,0 57,1 57,2 "Promoting and Accelerating the Market Penetration of Biomass Technology in Scotland". Scottish Executive Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland. [dostęp 2007-02-07].
  58. 58,0 58,1 Royal Society of Edinburgh (June 2006) Inquiry into Energy Issues for Scotland. Final Report. Edinburgh. RSE.
  59. "Biomass Energy". Highland and Islands Enterprise. [dostęp 2007-08-29].
  60. "Biomass fuels Related to forestry and agriculture". Macauley Institute. [dostęp 2007-02-07].
  61. Potential for Microgeneration"Study and Analysis (2005) (PDF) Energy Saving Trust, Econnect, Element Energy. Retrieved on 24 April 2008.
  62. "Advice on micro-renewables" (11 November 2006). Scottish Executive press release. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  63. Hi-energy news, winter 2006. Highlands and Islands Enterprise. [dostęp 2007-11-26]. s. 6.
  64. "Case Study: Dochas Gallery, Lochgilphead". HICEC. [dostęp 2007-02-10].
  65. "Renewables". Changeworks. [dostęp 2007-09-05].
  66. "Caithness Heat and Power". Caithness.org. [dostęp 2007-02-11].
  67. "Communities' spirits are high with sportscotland funding". Sportscotland. [dostęp 2007-08-29].
  68. "Distillery heats Tynecastle High School". City of Edinburgh Council, 2007-11-23. [dostęp 2007-11-24].
  69. "Solar electricity". Energy Saving Trust. [dostęp 2007-09-03].
  70. Talbott, John. (1993) Simply Build Green. Moray. Findhorn Foundation.
  71. "Scottish Renewables Economics Impact Report 07". Scottish Renewables Forum Limited. [dostęp 2007-02-11].
  72. "Scotland's largest Sun Energy system installed in Western Isles" (2 November 2004) Comhairle nan Eilean Siar. Press release. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
  73. road energy system. Invisible Heating Systems. [dostęp 2007-11-26].
  74. Energy from asphalt. Ooms International Holding bv. [dostęp 2007-11-26].
  75. John Ross: Heat-seeking sheep pave way for roads that generate energy. W: The Scotsman [on-line]. 2006-06-22.
  76. "Geothermal Energy". John Gilbert Architects. [dostęp 2007-02-09].
  77. "Ground Source". SEPA. [dostęp 2007-02-09].
  78. 78,0 78,1 78,2 78,3 McLoughlin, Nicola (12 July 2006) "Geothermal Heat in Scotland". (PDF). Edinburgh. Scottish Executive. SPICe briefing 06/54. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  79. See for example: "Wind Power: Your questions answered" (2006) Sustainable Development Commission. London.
  80. Gibson, Mike (19 January 2007) "Neutral Grounds". Sheffield. New Start.
  81. See for example Hamilton, Alan (29 January 2007) "Efforts at an ecological code upset by trains, planes and automobiles". London. The Times, and Swinford, Steven (21 January 2007) "G8 summit 'carbon offset' was hot air" London. Sunday Times. Retrieved 31 August 2007
  82. Monbiot (2006) op cit page 210 states "I will not attempt to catalogue the land seizures, conflicts with local people, double counting and downright fraud that has attended some of these schemes" and points to other sources which do so.
  83. Taylor, Peter (August 2005) "Carbon offsets, local renewables and nature conservation—realising the links" (PDF) In Carbon and Conservation ECOS—Quarterly Review of the British Association of Nature Conservationists. Volume 26 No.2. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  84. Page, Alan C: "CO2 Recovery in Managed Forests: Options for the Next Century". Prodigy.net. [dostęp 2007-01-27].
  85. "Sequestration science is far ahead of needed policy". (8 September 2006) MIT Technology Review. Retrieved on 24 June 2007. The report notes that the Sleipner natural gas field has been successfully sequestering carbon dioxide underground for 10 years.
  86. David Brockway, Chief of the Energy Technology Division, CSIRO, quoted by Crikey.com.au Retrieved on 20 February 2007.
  87. "Myths and facts of "clean coal" technologies". Greenpeace. [dostęp 2007-02-10].
  88. Doosan Babcock Energy Limited (aka 'Mitsui Babcock') based in Renfrew (and elsewhere in the UK) have conducted research into the clean coal concept e.g. "Clean Coal Technology and the Energy Review". Mitsui Babcock. [dostęp 2007-02-10]., and recently secured a contract with Scottish and Southern Energy plc for the retrofit installation of a 'supercritical clean coal boiler' in a 500 MW power station at Ferrybridge in England. Such a boiler is one part of a clean coal approach and it could save up to 500,000 tonnes (551,000 short tons) of carbon dioxide a year compared to current performance.
  89. "Carbon capture-ready clean coal power". The Engineer online, 31 May 2006. [dostęp 2007-02-10].
  90. "Renewables in Global Energy Supply" fact sheet. International Energy Agency. [dostęp 2007-02-10].
  91. "History of Support for Renewable Energy in Germany" in "Renewable Energy Policy in Germany: An Overview and Assessment". The Joint Global Change Research Institute. [dostęp 2007-04-06].
  92. Cohen, Bernard: Facts from Cohen and others: How long will nuclear energy last?. [dostęp 2007-04-06]. Extract from "Breeder reactors: A renewable energy source". American Journal of Physics, vol. 51, (1), Jan. 1983.
  93. "Minister declares nuclear 'renewable' ". Powerswitch.org, quoting The Times. [dostęp 2007-09-05].
  94. "Shetland Heat Energy & Power Ltd.". Shetland Heat Energy & Power Ltd.. [dostęp 2007-02-04].
  95. EPR Policies and Product Design: Economic Theory and Selected Case Studies"—ENV/EPOC/WGWPR(2005)9/FINAL (PDF) (2005) EU Working Group on Waste Prevention and Recycling. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  96. Romm, J.R. (2004) The Hype About Hydrogen. London. Island Press.
  97. "Scottish Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Map". Scottish Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association Ltd. [dostęp 2007-02-02].
  98. PURE project. Pure Energy Centre. [dostęp 2007-02-02].
  99. Harrell, E. (20 June 2006) "Waste plant set to become green fuel factory for islands". Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  100. "Hydrogen research shows Scots heading in right direction". (28 August 2005) The Sunday Herald. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  101. "Hydrogen Handling Materials". ITI Scotland. [dostęp 2007-02-02].
  102. There are ongoing attempts to keep the project alive—see for example Perry, David (25 May 2007) "Last-ditch fight on to save green gas project". Aberdeen. Press and Journal.
  103. Murray, W.H. (1966) The Hebrides. London. Heinemann. Page 232. Murray was born in 1913 and his use of the masculine may seem inappropriate now, although the harsh climate and lack of employment opportunities are very much an issue in the 21st century. See for example Ross, David (8 February 2007) "Western Isles set to pay its women to stay". The Herald. This report notes the local council's concerns about the long term decline in the population of women of child bearing age.
  104. Johnston, Ian (6 February 2007) "Scotland sits at a green crossroads". Edinburgh. The Scotsman. Retrieved on 31 August 2007.
  105. See for example: Energy4All Ltd. (2006) Empowering Communities: A Step By Step Guide to Financing A Community Renewable Energy Project. Inverness. HICEC
  106. What's Your View on Wild Land? (2006) John Muir Trust. Pitlochry. See also Renewable Energy Policy. John Muir Trust. [dostęp 2007-08-31].
  107. For example, a small-scale scheme proposed by North Harris development trust has been supported by the John Muir Trust, but opposed by Scottish Natural Heritage. The objection "caused outrage" and was withdrawn in September 2007. See Ross, David, (04 September 2007) "Heritage body in U-turn over island wind farm". Glasgow. The Herald. The project finally received planning consent for three 86 metre (282 ft) wind turbines in early 2008. See "North Harris community wind farm approved" (February 2008) John Muir Trust Journal No. 44. Page 5.
  108. Perry, David (22 November 2006) "Backing for North Sea Super-Grid plans". Aberdeen. Press and Journal.
  109. Dinning, R. J. (2006) "A response to the Scottish National Party Energy Review". (Microsoft Word document) London. Energy Institute. Retrieved 31 August 2007. This report notes "we are aware this topic has been contentious amongst Scottish generators and apparently perverse in that it acts against renewable energy in the remote areas where it is most abundant (the same is true for shore access to areas in which CO2 might be stored). However we have to observe the engineering logic surrounding the current regime—that generation be encouraged to deploy in areas, which avoid the wasted energy incurred in transmission losses". Nonetheless, Scottish Power have expressed concern that the current regime penalises the adoption of renewables.
  110. Akildade, Anthony (11 February 2007) "Osborne steps into row over green targets". Glasgow. Sunday Herald. This article outlines fears that subsidies for renewables will be targeted at offshore wind "which is more viable in England" than in Scotland where the technology "has yet to prove itself" because of the deeper waters off the coasts.
  111. Chambers, N. et al (2004) Scotland’s Footprint. Oxford. Best Foot Forward.
  112. "The Ecological Footprint: A resource accounting framework for measuring human demand on the biosphere". European Environment Agency. [dostęp 2007-02-04].
  113. Global biocapacity averages 1.8 global hectares per person (excluding biodiversity considerations). Chambers (2004) op cit. Thus the UK is more typical than Scotland, which although having a high level of consumption, is relatively thinly populated.
  114. See for example, Lowson, Mike (4 June 2007). "Halting the rush to blight Scotland's scenic landscape". Aberdeen. Press and Journal.
  115. "Angus To Join Moray In Green Energy Initiative". (27 January 2007) Aberdeen. Press and Journal.
  116. Peter Martin, Geoff Sellers and John Wishart: "Short Rotation Coppice:A potential biomass crop for the Highlands and Islands of Scotland". Orkney College. [dostęp 2007-09-03].
  117. "UK wind power portfolio reaches new milestone: UK becomes 7th country in world to install over 2 gigawatts of wind energy". British Wind Energy Association (February 7 2007) BWEA News press release. Retrieved on 15 February 2007.
  118. Edwards, Rob (20 January 2008) "Who Needs Nuclear?" Glasgow. Sunday Herald.
  119. Registered Power Zone Annual Report for period 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007 (pdf) Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution and Southern Electric Power Distribution. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
  120. FACILITATE GENERATION CONNECTIONS ON ORKNEY BY AUTOMATIC DISTRIBUTION NETWORK MANAGEMENT DTI. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
  121. " Construction of the 'Grass as an energy crop' digester progressing well." (19th September, 2007) Heat and Power Ltd. Retrieved 9 February 2008.
  122. "Introduction" Heat and Power Ltd. Retrieved 9 February 2008.
  123. "Salmond plans Norwegian energy link up" (29 October 2007) The Scotsman. Edinburgh.
  124. Lawrie, Alexxander (21 January 2008) "Cars run on whisky: what a dram fine idea". Glasgow. The Herald.
  125. MacDonnel, Hamish (30 January 2008) "Scotland aims to lead world in global warming battle". Edinburgh. The Scotsman".
  126. "Tocardo makes first waves in Caithness" energycurrent.com Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  127. Ross, John (25 February 2008) "Tour to unlock the power of Pentland Firth". Edinburgh The Scotsman.
  128. Delivering the New Generation of Energy (PDF). Scottish Renewables. ISBN 0-95533750-05 Retrieved on 6 April 2007.

Main references[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  • Monbiot, George (2006) Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning. London. Allen Lane.
  • RSPB Scotland, WWF Scotland and FOE Scotland (February 2006) The Power of Scotland: Cutting Carbon with Scotland's Renewable Energy. RSPB et al.
  • Scottish Executive (2005) Choosing Our Future: Scotland's Sustainable Development Strategy. Edinburgh.
  • Scottish Renewables Forum. Market and Planning Reports (various).
  • The Role of Nuclear Power in a Low Carbon Economy. (2006) Sustainable Development Commission. London.
  • Royal Society of Edinburgh (June 2006) Inquiry into Energy Issues for Scotland. Final Report. Edinburgh. RSE.


External links[edytuj | edytuj kod]

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