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The economy of Indie is the fourth largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). When measured in USD exchange-rate terms, it is the tenth largest in the world, with a GDP of US $1,0 trillion (2007).[1] India is the second fastest growing major economy in the world, with a GDP growth rate of 9,2% at the end of the second quarter of 2006–2007.[2] However, Indie's huge population results in a per capita income of $3400 at PPP and $820 at nominal.[3] The World Bank classifies India as a low-income economy.[4]

The economy is diverse and encompasses agriculture, handicrafts, textile, manufacturing, and a multitude of services. Although two-thirds of the Indian workforce still earn their livelihood directly or indirectly through agriculture, services are a growing sector and are playing an increasingly important role of India's economy. The advent of the digital age, and the large number of young and educated populace fluent in English, is gradually transforming India as an important 'back office' destination for global companies for the outsourcing of their customer services and technical support. India is a major exporter of highly-skilled workers in software and financial services, and software engineering. Other sectors like manufacturing, Pharmaceutical, biotechnology, nanotechnology, telecommunication shipbuilding and aviation are showing strong potential with higher growth rates.

India followed a socialist-inspired approach for most of its independent history, with strict government control over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. However, since the early 1990s, India has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment. The privatisation of publicly owned industries and the opening up of certain sectors to private and foreign interests has proceeded slowly amid political debate.

India faces a burgeoning population and the challenge of reducing economic and social inequality. Poverty remains a serious problem, although it has declined significantly since independence, mainly due to the green revolution and economic reforms.

History[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: Economic history of India.

India's economic history can be broadly divided into three eras, beginning with the pre-colonial period lasting up to the 17th century. The advent of British colonisation started the colonial period in the 17th century, which ended with the independence in 1947. The third period stretches from independence in 1947 until the present.

Pre-colonial[edytuj | edytuj kod]

The citizens of the Indus Valley civilisation, a permanent and predominantly urban settlement that flourished between 2800 BC and 1800 BC, practised agriculture, domesticated animals, used uniform weights and measures, made tools and weapons, and traded with other cities. Evidence of well planned streets, a drainage system and water supply reveals their knowledge of urban planning, which included the world's first urban sanitation systems and the existence of a form of municipal government.[5]

Silver coin minted during the reign of the Gupta king Kumara Gupta I (414–55 AD)

The 1872 census revealed that 99,3% of the population of the region constituting present-day India resided in villages,[6] whose economies were largely isolated and self-sustaining, with agriculture the predominant occupation. This satisfied the food requirements of the village and provided raw materials for hand-based industries, such as textiles, food processing and crafts. Although many kingdoms and rulers issued coins, barter was prevalent. Villages paid a portion of their agricultural produce as revenue to the rulers, while its craftsmen received a part of the crops at harvest time for their services.[7]

Reistate, especially Hinduism, and the caste and the joint family systems, played an influential role in shaping economic activities.[8] The caste system functioned much like medieval European guilds, ensuring the division of labour, providing for the training of apprentices and, in some cases, allowing manufacturers to achieve narrow specialisation. For instance, in certain regions, producing each variety of cloth was the speciality of a particular sub-caste.

Estimates of the per capita income of India (1857–1900) as per 1948–49 prices.[9]

Superstitions about foreign travel among Hindus meant that a large part of India's foreign trade was conducted by foreigners and Muslims.[10] Textiles such as muslin, Calicos, shawls, and agricultural products such as pepper, cinnamon, opium and indigo were exported to Europe, the Middle East and South East Asia in return for gold and silver.[11]

Assessment of India's pre-colonial economy is mostly qualitative, owing to the lack of quantitative information. One estimate puts the revenue of Akbar's Mughal Empire in 1600 at £17,5 million, in contrast with the total revenue of Great Britain in 1800, which totalled £16 million.[12] India, by the time of the arrival of the British, was a largely traditional agrarian economy with a dominant subsistence sector dependent on primitive technology. It existed alongside a competitively developed network of commerce, manufacturing and credit. After the fall of the Mughals and the rise of Maratha Empire, the Indian economy was plunged into a state of political instability due to internecine wars and conflicts.[13]

Colonial[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Colonial rule brought an institutional environment that guaranteed property rights among the colonizers, encouraged free trade, and created a single currency with fixed exchange rates, metric weights and measures, capital markets, a well developed system of railways and telegraphs, a civil service that aimed to be free from political interference, and a common-law, adversarial legal system.[14] India's colonisation by the British coincided with major changes in the world economy—industrialisation, and significant growth in production and trade. However, at the end of colonial rule, India inherited an economy that was one of the poorest in the developing world,[15] with industrial development stalled, agriculture unable to feed a rapidly growing population, one of the world's lowest life expectancies, and low rates of literacy.

An estimate by Cambridge University historian Angus Maddison reveals that India's share of the world income fell from 22,6% in 1700, comparable to Europe's share of 23,3%, to a low of 3,8% in 1952.[16] While Indian leaders during the Independence struggle, and left-nationalist economic historians have blamed colonial rule for the dismal state of India's economy in its aftermath, a broader macroeconomic view of India during this period reveals that there were sectors of growth and decline, resulting from changes brought about by colonialism and a world that was moving towards industrialisation and economic integration.[17][18]

Post-independence[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Growth rate of India's real GDP per capita (Constant Prices: Chain series) (1950–2006). Data Source: Penn World tables.

Indian economic policy after independence was influenced by the colonial experience (which was seen by Indian leaders as exploitative in nature) and by those leaders' exposure to Fabian socialism. Policy tended towards protectionism, with a strong emphasis on import substitution, industrialisation, state intervention in labour and financial markets, a large public sector, business regulation, and central planning.[19] Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister, along with the statistician Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, carried on by Indira Gandhi formulated and oversaw economic policy. They expected favourable outcomes from this strategy, because it involved both public and private sectors and was based on direct and indirect state intervention, rather than the more extreme Soviet-style central command system.[20] The policy of concentrating simultaneously on capital- and technology-intensive heavy industry and subsidising manual, low-skill cottage industries was criticised by economist Milton Friedman, who thought it would waste capital and labour, and retard the development of small manufacturerers.[21]

Per capita GDP (at PPP) of South Asian economies versus those of Korea Południowa, as a percentage of the US[19][22]

India's low average growth rate from 1947–80 was derisively referred to as the Hindu rate of growth, because of the unfavourable comparison with growth rates in other Asian countries, especially the "East Asian Tigers".[14] The economic reforms that caused a surge in economic growth after 1980 can be attributed to two stages of reform. The pro-business measures of 1980, initiated by Rajiv Gandhi, eased restrictions on capacity expansion for incumbents, removed price controls and reduced corporate taxes. The economic liberalisation of 1991, initiated by then Indian prime minister P. V. Narasimha Rao and his finance minister Manmohan Singh in response to a balance-of-payments crisis, did away with the Licence Raj (investment, industrial and import licensing) and ended many public monopolies, allowing automatic approval of foreign direct investment in many sectors.[23] Since then, the overall direction of liberalisation has remained the same, irrespective of the ruling party, although no party has yet tried to take on powerful lobbies such as the trade unions and farmers, or contentious issues such as reforming labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies.[24]

Szablon:See also

Since 1990, India has emerged as one of the wealthiest economies in the developing world; during this period, the economy has grown constantly with only a few major setbacks. This has been accompanied by increases in life expectancy, literacy rates and food security.

While the credit rating of India was hit by its nuclear tests in 1998, it has been raised to investment level in 2007 by S&P and Moody's.[25][26]

Future predictions[edytuj | edytuj kod]

In 1999, Goldman Sachs has predicted that India's GDP in current prices will overtake France and Italy by 2020, Germany, UK and Russia by 2025 and Japan by 2035. By 2035 it is expected to reach as 3rd largest economy of the world behind US and China[1]. Goldman Sachs has made these predictions based on India's expected growth rate of 5,3 to 6,1% in various periods, whereas India is registering more than 9% growth rate . However the same report also shows there is large variation in its predicted gauging growth between 1960–2000, 7,5% predicted India's annual growth rate compared to the real value of only 4,5% during that period.

Economics experts and various studies conducted across the globe envisage India and China to rule the world in the 21st century. For over a century the United States has been the largest economy in the world but major developments have taken place in the world economy since then, leading to the shift of focus from the US and the rich countries of Europe to the two Asian giants- India and China.

The rich countries of Europe have seen the greatest decline in global GDP share by 4,9 percentage points, followed by the US and Japan with a decline of about 1 percentage point each. Within Asia, the rising share of China and India has more than made up the declining global share of Japan since 1990. During the seventies and the eighties, ASEAN countries and during the eighties South Korea, along with China and India, contributed to the rising share of Asia in world GDP.

According to some experts, the share of the US in world GDP is expected to fall (from 21 per cent to 18 per cent) and that of India to rise (from 6 per cent to 11 per cent in 2025), and hence the latter will emerge as the third pole in the global economy after the US and China.The basic idea is that income per capita was roughly similar prior to the industrial revolution with the regions that make up the boundaries of modern day China and India each had much larger economies than the west. Now with rapid growth in the developing world (excluding sub-Saharan Africa) we are again going to have a situation of roughly similar standards of living in most of the world within the next 100 years. China and India, each having populations of over three times that of any other country, will have the world's two largest economies based on an average growth of 5% and a currency appreciation of 2% per annum vis a vis the US Dollar.

By 2025 the Indian economy is projected to be about 60 per cent the size of the US economy. The transformation into a quadri-polar economy (EU included) will be complete by 2035, with the Indian economy only a little smaller than the US economy but larger than that of Western Europe. By 2035, India is likely to be a larger growth driver than the six largest countries in the EU, though its impact will be a little over half that of the US. India, which is now the fourth largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity, will overtake Japan and become third major economic power within 1 year.

A Goldman Sachs report recently cited by BBC News stated that 'India could overtake Britain and have the world's fifth largest economy within a decade as the country's growth accelerates'[27] Jim O'Neal, head of the Global Economics Team at Goldman Sachs, said on the BBC, "In thirty years, India's workforce could be as big as that of the United States and China combined"[28]

Government intervention[edytuj | edytuj kod]

State planning and the mixed economy[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: Five-Year Plans of India.

After independence, India opted for a centrally planned economy to try to achieve an effective and equitable allocation of national resources and balanced economic development. The process of formulation and direction of the Five-Year Plans is carried out by the Planning Commission, headed by the Prime Minister of India as its chairperson.[29]

The number of people employed in non-agricultural occupations in the public and private sectors. Totals are rounded. Private sector data relates to non-agriculture establishments with 10 or more employees.[30]

India's mixed economy combines features of both capitalist market economy and the socialist command economy, but has shifted more towards the former over the past decade. The public sector generally covers areas which are deemed too important or not profitable enough to leave to the market, including such services as the railways and postal system.

Since independence, there have been phases of nationalising such areas as banking and, more recently, of privatisation.[30]

Public expenditure[edytuj | edytuj kod]

India's public expenditure is classified as development expenditure, comprising central plan expenditure and central assistance and non-development expenditures; these categories can each be divided into capital expenditure and revenue expenditure. Central plan expenditure is allocated to development schemes outlined in the plans of the central government and public sector undertakings; central assistance refers to financial assistance and developmental loans given for plans of the state governments and union territories. Non-development capital expenditure comprises capital defense expenditure, loans to public enterprises, states and union territories and foreign governments, while non-development revenue expenditure comprises revenue defence expenditure, administrative expenditure, subsidies, debt relief to farmers, postal deficit, pensions, social and economic services (education, health, agriculture, science and technology), grants to states and union territories and foreign governments.[31][32][30]

Headquarters of India's central bank, the Reserve Bank of India, in Mumbai.

India's non-development revenue expenditure has increased nearly fivefold in 2003–04 since 1990–91 and more than tenfold since 1985–1986. Interest payments are the single largest item of expenditure and accounted for more than 40% of the total non development expenditure in the 2003–04 budget. Defence expenditure increased fourfold during the same period and has been increasing due to growing tensions in the region, the expensive dispute with Pakistan over Dżammu i Kaszmir and an effort to modernise the military. Administrative expenses are compounded by a large salary and pension bill, which rises periodically due to revisions in wages, dearness allowance etc. subsidies on food, fertilizers, education and petroleum and other merit and non-merit subsidies account are not only continuously rising, especially because of rising crude oil and food prices, but are also harder to rein in, because of political compulsions.[33][30]

Public receipts[edytuj | edytuj kod]

India has a three-tier tax structure, wherein the constitution empowers the union government to levy Income tax, tax on capital transactions (wealth tax, inheritance tax), sales tax, service tax, customs and excise duties and the state governments to levy sales tax on intra-state sale of goods, tax on entertainment and professions, excise duties on manufacture of alcohol, stamp duties on transfer of property and collect land revenue (levy on land owned). The local governments are empowered by the state government to levy property tax, Octroi and charge users for public utilities like water supply, sewage etc.[34][35] More than half of the revenues of the union and state governments come from taxes, of which half come from Indirect taxes. More than a quarter of the union government's tax revenues is shared with the state governments.[36]

The tax reforms, initiated in 1991, have sought to rationalise the tax structure and increase compliance by taking steps in the following directions:

  • Reducing the rates of individual and corporate income taxes, excises, customs and making it more progressive
  • Reducing exemptions and concessions
  • Simplification of laws and procedures
  • Introduction of Permanent account number to track monetary transactions
  • 21 of the 29 states introduced Value added tax (VAT) on April 1, 2005 to replace the complex and multiple sales tax system[35][37]

The non-tax revenues of the central government come from fiscal services, interest receipts, public sector dividends, etc., while the non-tax revenues of the States are grants from the central government, interest receipts, dividends and income from general, economic and social services.[33]

Inter-State share in the federal tax pool is decided by the recommendations of the Finance Commission to the President.

General budget[edytuj | edytuj kod]

The Finance minister of India presents the annual union budget in the Parliament on the last working day of February. The budget has to be passed by the Lok Sabha before it can come into effect on April 1, the start of India's fiscal year. The Union budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial year. This economic survery involves all the various NGOs, women organizations, business people, old people associations etc.

India's union budget for 2005–06, had an estimated outlay of Rs.5 14 344 crores ($118 billion). Earnings from taxes amount to Rs. 2 73 466 crore ($63b). India's fiscal deficit amounts to 4,5% or 1 39 231 crore ($32b).[38] The fiscal deficit is expected to be 3,8% of GDP, by March 2007.[39] Szablon:See also

Currency System[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Rupee[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: Indian Rupee.

The Rupee is the only legal tender accepted in India. The exchange rate as of 13 April 2007 is about 42 to a US dollar, 50,316 to a euro, and 83,755 to a UK pound. This makes a crore rupees (Rs. 10 000 000) approximately equal to $214,915, €168,588, or £115,267. The Indian rupee is accepted as legal tender in the neighbouring Nepal and Bhutan, both of which peg their currency to that of the Indian rupee. The rupee is divided into 100 paise. The highest-denomination banknote is the 1 000 rupee note; the lowest-denomination coin in circulation is the 25 p coin.[40]

Exchange rates[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Under the fixed exchange rate system, the value of the rupee was linked to the British pound sterling until 1946, and after independence, 30% of India's foreign trade was determined in pound sterling. In 1975, as per the floating exchange rate system, the value of the rupee was pegged to a basket of currencies and was tightly controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. In recent years its value has depreciated with respect to most currencies with the exception of the U.S. dollar.

Since liberalisation, the rupee is fully convertible on trade and current account. The former has enabled Indian businessmen and workers to convert their earnings abroad into rupee at market rates, while the latter has removed all restrictions on foreign exchange for current business transactions as well as travel, education, medical expenses, etc. India has committed to gradually move towards full convertibility, albeit with some restrictions on capital accounts, in order to encourage two-way flow of capital and investment.[41]Szablon:Inote

Determinants[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Demographics[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: Demographics of India.

India, with a population of 1,095 billion people, is the second most populous country in the world, accounting for one in six human beings of the Earth's population. Growth rate of population has decreased from a compound annual growth rate of 2,15 (1951–81) to 1,38% (2005–06),[3] despite the decrease in the death rates owing to improvements in health care.

The large population puts further pressure on infrastructure and social services. A positive factor has been the large working-age population, which forms 45,33%[42] of the population and is expected to increase substantially, because of the decreasing dependency ratio. Increased rates of literacy, better health care and self-sufficiency in food production in recent times have ensured that a large population has not caused any serious problems.[43][30] The national labour market has been tightly regulated by successive governments ever since the Workmen's Compensation Act was passed in 1923.

Geography and natural resources[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: Geography of India.
Dams like the Kolkewadi Dam have mitigated India's power needs.

India's geography ranges from mountain ranges to deserts, plains, hills and plateaus, while its climate varies from tropical in the south to a more temperate climate in the north. India's total cultivable area is 1 269 219 km² (56,78% of total land area), which is decreasing due to constant pressure from an ever growing population and increased urbanisation.

India has a total water surface area of 314 400 km² and receives an average annual rainfall of 1 100 mm. Irrigation accounts for 92% of the water utilisation, and comprised 380 km² in 1974, and is expected to rise to 1 050 km² by 2025, with the balance accounted for by industrial and domestic consumers. India's inland water resources comprising rivers, canals, ponds and lakes and marine resources comprising the east and west coasts of the Indian ocean and other gulfs and bays provide employment to nearly 6 million people in the fisheries sector. India is the sixth largest producer of fish in the world and second largest in inland fish production.

India's major mineral resources include Coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), Iron ore, Manganese, Mica, Bauxite, Titanium ore, Chromite, Natural gas, Diamonds, Petroleum, Limestone and Thorium (world's largest along Kerala's shores). India's oil reserves, found in Bombay High off the coast of Maharashtra, Gujarat, and in eastern Assam meet 25% of the country's demand.[41][3]

Physical infrastructure[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Cheap and environment friendly public transport is seen as a necessity for India's crowded and polluted metros. Pictured here, is the New Delhi Metro, operational since 2002 and seen as a model for other metros.

Since independence, India has allocated nearly half of the total outlay of the five-year plans for infrastructural development. Much of the total outlay was spent on large projects in the area of irrigation, energy, transport, communications and social overheads. Development of infrastructure was completely in the hands of the public sector and was plagued by corruption, bureaucratic inefficiencies, urban-bias and an inability to scale investment.[44]

India's low spending on power, construction, transportation, telecommunications and real estate, at $31 billion or 6% of GDP, compared to China's spending of $260 billion or 20% of its GDP in 2002 has prevented India from sustaining a growth rate of around 8%. This has prompted the government to partially open up infrastructure to the private sector allowing foreign investment[45][46][30] which has helped in a sustained growth rate of above 8% for the past six quarters.[47] India holds second position in the world in roadways' construction, more than twice that of China.[48]

As of 15 January 2007, there were 2,10 million broadband lines in India.[2] Low tele-density is the major hurdle for slow pickup in broadband services. Over 76% of the broadband lines were via DSL and the rest via cable modems. Szablon:See also

Politics[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: Politics of India.

India, a federal republic, has had stable democratic governments since independence. Politics is dominated by the centre-left Indian National Congress (INC), the right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the left-wing Communist Party of India (CPI) and CPI (Marxist) and various regional parties, which are either centre-right or centre-left. Despite the varied political spectrums they occupy, the necessity of forming coalitions for government formation, the growing middle class that generally favours liberalisation and tightening fiscal deficits, especially at the state levels, has meant that all political parties adopt a moderate view towards economic reforms.[49][50][51]

Financial institutions[edytuj | edytuj kod]

India has set up Special Economic Zones and software parks that offer tax benefits and better infrastructure to set up business. Pictured here is the Tidel Park in Madras, one of the largest software parks in India.

At the time of Independence, India inherited several institutions like the civil services, central bank, railways, etc., from her British rulers. Mumbai serves as the nation's commercial capital, with the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Giełda Papierów Wartościowych w Bombaju (Bombay Stock Exchange, BSE) and the Indyjska Narodowa Giełda Papierów Wartościowych (National Stock Exchange, NSE) located here. The headquarters of many financial institutions are also located within the city.

The RBI, the country's central bank was established on 1 April 1935. It serves as the nation's monetary authority, regulator and supervisor of the financial system, manager of exchange control and as an issuer of currency. The RBI is governed by a central board, headed by a governor who is appointed by the Central government of India.

The BSE Sensex or the BSE Sensitive Index is a value-weighted index composed of 30 companies with April 1979 as the base year (100). These companies have the largest and most actively traded stocks and are representative of various sectors, on the Exchange. They account for around one-fifth of the market capitalisation of the BSE. The Sensex is generally regarded as the most popular and precise barometer of the Indian stock markets. Incorporated in 1992, the National Stock Exchange is one of the largest and most advanced stock markets in India. The NSE is the world's third largest stock exchange in terms of transactions. There are a total of 23 stock exchanges in India, but the BSE and NSE comprise 83% of the volumes.[52] The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), established in 1992, regulates the stock markets and other securities markets of the country.

Sectors[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Agriculture[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: Agriculture in India.

Given below is a chart of trend of output of cereals and major foodgrains as published[53] by the Department of Food and Public Distribution with figures in tonnes.

Year Cereals Rice Wheat Coarsegrains Pulses
2001–02 199 480 000 93 340 000 72 770 000 33 370 000 13 370 000
2004–05 192 730 000 87 800 000 73 030 000 31 880 000 13 670 000
Composition of India's total production (million tonnes) of foodgrains and commercial crops, in 2003–04.

India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 18,6% of the GDP in 2005, employed 60% of the total workforce[3] and despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP, is still the largest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of India. Yields per unit area of all crops have grown since 1950, due to the special emphasis placed on agriculture in the five-year plans and steady improvements in irrigation, technology, application of modern agricultural practices and provision of agricultural credit and subsidies since the green revolution. However, international comparisons reveal that the average yield in India is generally 30% to 50% of the highest average yield in the world.[54]

The low productivity in India is a result of the following factors:

  • Illiteracy, general socio-economic backwardness, slow progress in implementing land reforms and inadequate or inefficient finance and marketing services for farm produce.
  • The average size of land holdings is very small (less than 20 000 m²) and is subject to fragmentation, due to land ceiling acts and in some cases, family disputes. Such small holdings are often over-manned, resulting in disguised unemployment and low productivity of labour.
  • Adoption of modern agricultural practices and use of technology is inadequate, hampered by ignorance of such practices, high costs and impracticality in the case of small land holdings.
  • Irrigation facilities are inadequate, as revealed by the fact that only 53,6% of the land was irrigated in 2000–01,[55] which result in farmers still being dependent on rainfall, specifically the Monsoon season. A good monsoon results in a robust growth for the economy as a whole, while a poor monsoon leads to a sluggish growth.[56] Farm credit is regulated by NABARD, which is the statutory apex agent for rural development in the subcontinent.

Industry[edytuj | edytuj kod]

India's 5 leading companies, as per Forbes Global 2000 ranking for 2005.[57]
Global
ranking
Company
265 Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
269 State Bank of India Group
279 Indian Oil Corporation
309 Reliance Industries Limited
486 National Thermal Power Corporation

India is fourteenth in the world in factory output. They together account for 27,6% of the GDP and employ 17% of the total workforce.[3] Economic reforms brought foreign competition, led to privatisation of certain public sector industries, opened up sectors hitherto reserved for the public sector and led to an expansion in the production of fast-moving consumer goods.[58]

Post-liberalisation, the Indian private sector, which was usually run by oligopolies of old family firms and required political connections to prosper was faced with foreign competition, including the threat of cheaper Chinese imports. It has since handled the change by squeezing costs, revamping management, focusing on designing new products and relying on low labour costs and technology.[59]

Six Indian companies have been listed in the Fortune Global 500 list for the year 2006.[60] They are:

Services[edytuj | edytuj kod]

India is fifteenth in services output. It provides employment to 23% of work force, and it is growing fast, growth rate 7,5% in 1991–2000 up from 4,5% in 1951–80. It has the largest share in the GDP, accounting for 53,8% in 2005 up from 15% in 1950.[3] Business services (information technology, information technology enabled services, business process outsourcing) are among the fastest growing sectors contributing to one third of the total output of services in 2000. The growth in the IT sector is attributed to increased specialisation, availability of a large pool of low cost, but highly skilled, educated and fluent English-speaking workers on the supply side and on the demand side, increased demand from foreign consumers interested in India's service exports or those looking to outsource their operations. India's IT industry, despite contributing significantly to its balance of payments, accounted for only about 1% of the total GDP or 1/50th of the total services.[61] Excellent infrastructure in the service sector and the lowest communication cost has helped India to be a dominant player in these sectors.

Banking and finance[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: Banking in India.
Structure of the organised banking sector in India. Number of banks are in brackets.[62]

The Indian money market is classified into: the organised sector (comprising private, public and foreign owned commercial banks and cooperative banks, together known as scheduled banks); and the unorganised sector (comprising individual or family owned indigenous bankers or money lenders and non-banking financial companies (NBFCs)). The unorganised sector and microcredit are still preferred over traditional banks in rural and sub-urban areas, especially for non-productive purposes, like ceremonies and short duration loans.[63]

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi nationalised 15 banks in 1969, followed by six others in 1980, and made it mandatory for banks to provide 40% (since reduced to 10%) of their net credit to priority sectors like agriculture, small-scale industry, retail trade, small businesses, etc. to ensure that the banks fulfill their social and developmental goals. Since then, the number of bank branches has increased from 10 120 in 1969 to 98 910 in 2003 and the population covered by a branch decreased from 63 800 to 15 000 during the same period. The total deposits increased 32,6 times between 1971 to 1991 compared to 7 times between 1951 to 1971. Despite an increase of rural branches, from 1 860 or 22% of the total number of branches in 1969 to 32 270 or 48%, only 32 270 out of 5 lakh (500 000) villages are covered by a scheduled bank.[64][65]

Since liberalisation, the government has approved significant banking reforms. While some of these relate to nationalised banks (like encouraging mergers, reducing government interference and increasing profitability and competitiveness), other reforms have opened up the banking and insurance sectors to private and foreign players.[66][3]

Socio-economic characteristics[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Poverty[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: Poverty in India.

Wealth distribution in India, a developing country, is fairly uneven, with the top 10% of income groups earning 33% of the income.[67]

While poverty in India has reduced significantly, 17,59% (over 230 million) of Indians still live below the national poverty line. Since the early 1950s, successive governments have implemented various schemes, under planning, to alleviate poverty, that have met with partial success. All these programmes have relied upon the strategies of the Food for work programme and National Rural Employment Programme of the 1980s, which attempted to use the unemployed to generate productive assets and build rural infrastructure.[30] In August 2005, the Indian parliament passed the Rural Employment Guarantee Bill, the largest programme of this type in terms of cost and coverage, which promises 100 days of minimum wage employment to every rural household in 200 of India's 600 districts. Szablon:Inote The question of whether economic reforms have reduced poverty or not has fuelled debates without generating any clear cut answers and has also put political pressure on further economic reforms, especially those involving the downsizing of labour and cutting agricultural subsidies.[68][69]

Corruption[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Extent of corruption in Indian states, as measured in a 2005 study by Transparency International India. (Darker regions are more corrupt)[70]

Corruption has been one of the pervasive problems affecting India. It takes the form of bribes, evasion of tax and exchange controls, embezzlement, etc. The economic reforms of 1991 reduced the red tape, bureaucracy and the Licence Raj that had strangled private enterprise and was blamed for the corruption and inefficiencies.[71] Yet, a 2005 study by Transparency International (TI) India found that more than half of those surveyed had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office.[70]

The chief economic consequences of corruption are the loss to the exchequer, an unhealthy climate for investment and a decrease in the cost of government-subsidised services. The TI India study estimates the monetary value of petty corruption in 11 basic services provided by the government, like education, healthcare, judiciary, police, etc., to be around Rs.21 068 crores.[70] India still ranks in the bottom quartile of developing nations in terms of the ease of doing business, and compared to China, the average time taken to secure the clearances for a startup or to invoke bankruptcy is much greater.[30]

The Right to Information Act (2005) and equivalent acts in the states, that require government officials to furnish information requested by citizens or face punitive action, computerisation of services and various central and state government acts that established vigilance commissions have considerably reduced corruption or at least have opened up avenues to redress grievances.[70][72] The latest report by Transparency International puts India at 70th place and states that significant improvements was made by India in reducing corruption. [3] [4]

Occupations and unemployment[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Agricultural and allied sectors accounted for about 57% of the total workforce in 1999–2000, down from 60% in 1993–94. While agriculture has faced stagnation in growth, services have seen a steady growth. Of the total workforce, 8% is in the organised sector, two-thirds of which are in the public sector. The NSSO survey estimated that in 1999–2000, 106 million, nearly 10% of the population were unemployed and the overall unemployment rate was 7,32%, with rural areas doing marginally better (7,21%) than urban areas (7,65%).

Unemployment in India is characterised by chronic underemployment or disguised unemployment. Government schemes that target eradication of both poverty and unemployment, (Which in recent decades has sent millions of poor and unskilled people into urban areas in search of livelihoods.) attempt to solve the problem, by providing financial assistance for setting up businesses, skill honing, setting up public sector enterprises, reservations in governments, etc. The decreased role of the public sector after liberalisation has further underlined the need for focusing on better education and has also put political pressure on further reforms.[73][30]

Regional imbalance[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Information icon.svg Osobny artykuł: List of regions of India.

One of the critical problems facing India's economy is the sharp and growing regional variations among India's different states and territories in terms of per capita income, poverty, availability of infrastructure and socio-economic development.[74]

The five-year plans have attempted to reduce regional disparities by encouraging industrial development in the interior regions, but industries still tend to concentrate around urban areas and port cities[75] After liberalization, the more advanced states are better placed to benefit from them, with infrastructure like well developed ports, urbanisation and an educated and skilled workforce which attract manufacturing and service sectors. The union and state governments of backward regions are trying to reduce the disparities by offering tax holidays, cheap land, etc., and focusing more on sectors like tourism, which although being geographically and historically determined, can become a source of growth and is faster to develop than other sectors.[76][77] Szablon:See also Szablon:See also

External trade and investment[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Global trade relations[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Share of top five investing countries in FDI inflows. (1991–2004)[78]
Rank Country Inflows
(Million USD)
Inflows (%)
1  Mauritius 8 898 34,49%[79]
2  Stany Zjednoczone 4 389 17,08%
3  Japonia 1 891 7,33%
4  Holandia 1 847 7,16%
5  Wielka Brytania 1 692 6,56%

Until the liberalisation of 1991, India was largely and intentionally isolated from the world markets, to protect its fledging economy and to achieve self-reliance. Foreign trade was subject to import tariffs, export taxes and quantitative restrictions, while foreign direct investment was restricted by upper-limit equity participation, restrictions on technology transfer, export obligations and government approvals; these approvals were needed for nearly 60% of new FDI in the industrial sector. The restrictions ensured that FDI averaged only around $200M annually between 1985 and 1991; a large percentage of the capital flows consisted of foreign aid, commercial borrowing and deposits of non-resident Indians.[80]

The Bombay Stock Exchange is one of the two largest stock markets in India. Its index is used to gauge the strength of the Indian economy.

India's exports were stagnant for the first 15 years after independence, due to the predominance of tea, jute and cotton manufactures, demand for which was generally inelastic. Imports in the same period consisted predominantly of machinery, equipment and raw materials, due to nascent industrialisation. Since liberalisation, the value of India's international trade has become more broad-based and has risen to Rs. 63 080 109 crores in 2003–04 from Rs.1 250 crores in 1950–51. India's major trading partners are China, the US, the UAE, the UK, Japan and the EU.[81] The exports during August 2006 were $10,3 billion up by 41,14% and import were $13,87 billion with an increase of 32,16% over the previous year [5].

India is a founding-member of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) since 1947 and its successor, the World Trade Organization. While participating actively in its general council meetings, India has been crucial in voicing the concerns of the developing world. For instance, India has continued its opposition to the inclusion of such matters as labour and environment issues and other non-tariff barriers into the WTO policies.[82]

Balance of payments[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Since independence, India's balance of payments on its current account has been negative. Since liberalisation in the 1990s (precipitated by a balance of payment crisis), India's exports have been consistently rising, covering 80,3% of its imports in 2002–03, up from 66,2% in 1990–91. Although India is still a net importer, since 1996–97, its overall balance of payments (i.e., including the capital account balance), has been positive, largely on account of increased foreign direct investment and deposits from non-resident Indians; until this time, the overall balance was only occasionally positive on account of external assistance and commercial borrowings. As a result, India's foreign currency reserves stood at $141bn in 2005–06.[83][84]

India is a net importer: in 2005, imports were $89,33bn and exports $69,18bn.

India's reliance on external assistance and commercial borrowings has decreased since 1991–92, and since 2002–03, it has gradually been repaying these debts. Declining interest rates and reduced borrowings decreased India's debt service ratio to 14,1% in 2001–02, from 35,3% in 1990–91.[85] Szablon:Inote

Foreign direct investment in India[edytuj | edytuj kod]

As the fourth-largest economy in the world, India is undoubtedly one of the most preferred destinations for foreign direct investments (FDI); India has strength in information technology and other significant areas such as auto components, chemicals, apparels, pharmaceuticals and jewellery. India has always held promise for global investors, but its rigid FDI policies were a significant hindrance in this regard. However, as a result of a series of ambitious and positive economic reforms aimed at deregulating the economy and stimulating foreign investment, India has positioned itself as one of the front-runners of the rapidly growing Asia Pacific Region. India has a large pool of skilled managerial and technical expertise. The size of the middle-class population at 300 million exceeds the population of both the US and the EU, and represents a powerful consumer market.[86]

India's recently liberalised FDI policy (2005) allows up to a 100% FDI stake in ventures. Industrial policy reforms have substantially reduced industrial licensing requirements, removed restrictions on expansion and facilitated easy access to foreign technology and foreign direct investment FDI. The upward moving growth curve of the real-estate sector owes some credit to a booming economy and liberalized FDI regime. In March 2005, the government amended the rules to allow 100 per cent FDI in the construction business.[87] This automatic route has been permitted in townships, housing, built-up infrastructure and construction development projects including housing, commercial premises, hotels, resorts, hospitals, educational institutions, recreational facilities, and city- and regional-level infrastructure.

See also[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Szablon:Economy of India related topics

Notes[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  1. Economic Times India
  2. India's Economic Growth Unexpectedly Quickens to 9,2%. September 30 2005.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 3,6 USUNIĘTY PRZYPIS
  4. World Bank Country Classification Groups, (July 2006 data)
  5. Nehru, Jawaharlal: Discovery of India. Penguin Books, 1946. ISBN 0-14-303103-1.
  6. Kumar, Dharma (Ed.): The Cambridge Economic History of India (Volume 2) c. 1757 - c. 1970. Penguin Books, 1982, s. 519.
  7. 2. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. S.Chand, 2005, s. 15–16. ISBN 81-219-0298-3.
  8. 3. W: Sankaran, S: Indian Economy: Problems, Policies and Development. Margham Publications, 1994, s. 50. ISBN.
  9. 4. W: Kumar, Dharma (Ed.): The Cambridge Economic History of India (Volume 2). s. 422.
  10. 1. W: Kumar, Dharma (Ed.): The Cambridge Economic History of India (Volume 2). s. 24–26.
  11. 2. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 16.
  12. Błąd w składni szablonu {{Cytuj stronę}}. Brak podanego adresu cytowanej strony (parametr url=|).
  13. 1. W: Kumar, Dharma (Ed.): The Cambridge Economic History of India (Volume 2). s. 32–35.
  14. 14,0 14,1 Williamson, John and Zagha, Roberto. From the Hindu Rate of Growth to the Hindu Rate of Reform. , 2002. Center for research on economic development and policy reform. 
  15. 1. W: Roy, Tirthankar: The Economic History of India. Oxford University Press, 2000, s. 1. ISBN 0-19-565154-5.
  16. Of Oxford, economics, empire, and freedom. October 02 2005.
  17. 10. W: Roy, Tirthankar: The Economic History of India. Oxford University Press, 2000, s. 304. ISBN 0-19-565154-5.
  18. preface. W: Roy, Tirthankar: The Economic History of India. Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-565154-5.
  19. 19,0 19,1 Kelegama, Saman and Parikh, Kirit. Political Economy of Growth and Reforms in South Asia. , 2000. 
  20. Cameron, John and Ndhlovu, P Tidings. Cultural Influences on Economic Thought in India: Resistance to diffusion of neo-classical economics and the principles of Hinduism. , 2001. 
  21. Milton Friedman on the Nehru/Mahalanobis Plan. [dostęp 2005].
  22. Data for Bangladesh is not available for 1950.
  23. Panagariya, Arvind. India in the 1980s and 1990s: A Triumph of Reforms. , 2004. 
  24. That old Gandhi magic. November 27 1997.
  25. "S&P raises India's credit rating.
  26. "India's sovereign credit upgraded".
  27. "Indian economy 'to overtake UK'". [dostęp 2007-01-26].
  28. "India Rising; Economy; Special Debate. [dostęp 2007-03-08].
  29. History of the Planning Commission. [dostęp 2005].
  30. 30,0 30,1 30,2 30,3 30,4 30,5 30,6 30,7 30,8 Economic Survey 2004–2005. [dostęp 2006].
  31. Public expenditure was classified as plan and non-plan expenditure in the 1987–1988 union budget. It is now referred to as development and non-development expenditure, but the definition remains the same. Development expenditure is a capital expenditure.
  32. 55. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 943.
  33. 33,0 33,1 55. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 943–945.
  34. Service tax and expenditure tax are not levied in Dżammu i Kaszmir; Intra-state sale happens when goods or the title of goods move from one state to another.
  35. 35,0 35,1 Bernardi, Luigi and Fraschini, Angela. Tax System And Tax Reforms In India. , 2005. 
  36. Tax revenue was 88% of total union government revenue in 1950–51 and has come down to 73% in 2003–04, as a result of increase in non-tax revenue. Tax revenues were 70% of total state government revenues in 2002 to 2003. Indirect taxes were 84% of the union governments total tax revenue and have come down to 62% in 2003–04, mostly due to cuts in import duties and rationalisation. The states share in union government's tax revenue is 28,0% for the period 2000 to 2005 as per the recommendations of the eleventh finance commission. In addition, states that do not levy sales tax on sugar, textiles and tobacco, are entitled to 1,5% of the proceeds. Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. S.Chand, 2005, s. 938, 942, 946. ISBN 81-219-0298-3.
  37. Indif_real_GDP_per_capitaa says 21 of 29 states to launch new tax. March 25 2005.
  38. Union Budget & Economic Survey. [dostęp 2006].
  39. Revenue surge boosts fiscal health.
  40. RBI
  41. 41,0 41,1 49. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 839–841.
  42. Labor force=496,4 million(2005) according to CIA World factbook
  43. 4. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 42,43,50.
  44. Sankaran, S: Indian Economy: Problems, Policies and Development. Margham Publications, 1994. ISBN.
  45. Infrastructure the missing link. [dostęp 2005].
  46. Infrastructure in India: Requirements and favorable climate for foreign investment. [dostęp 2005].
  47. India's Economic Growth Unexpectedly Quickens to 9,2%
  48. Infrastructure Rankings.
  49. India’s next 50 years. August 14 1997.
  50. The plot thickens. May 31 2001.
  51. The voters' big surprise. May 13 2004.
  52. Regional stock exchanges—Bulldozed by the Big Two. [dostęp 2005].
  53. All India Production of Foodgrains (July-June). 2005-10-24. [dostęp 2006-07-24].
  54. 28. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 485–491.
  55. Multiple authors. Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2004. , 2004. 
  56. 28. W: Sankaran, S: Indian Economy: Problems, Policies and Development. s. 492–493.
  57. Forbes Global 2000 (Ger-Ind). [dostęp 2005].
  58. Economic structure. October 6 2003.
  59. Indian manufacturers learn to compete. 12 February 2004.
  60. Fortune Global 500 - India. 2006.
  61. Gordon, Jim and Gupta, Poonam. Understanding India's Services Revolution. , 2003. 
  62. Old private banks are private banks existing prior to opening up of the banking sector.
  63. 50. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 847–850.
  64. 50. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 850–851.
  65. Ghosh, Jayati: Bank Nationalisation: The Record. W: Macroscan [on-line]. [dostęp 2005].
  66. 50. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 865–867.
  67. "In Pictures – Middle Class, or Upper Class? ". India Together. Civil Society Information Exchange. August 2003
  68. 22. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 367,369,370.
  69. Jawahar gram samriddhi yojana. [dostęp 2005].
  70. 70,0 70,1 70,2 70,3 Centre for Media Studies. India Corruption Study 2005: To Improve Governance Volume – I: Key Highlights. , 2005. Transparency International India. 
  71. DeLong, J. Bradford. India Since Independence: An Analytic Growth Narrative. , 2001. 
  72. Example of a central government department's implementation of the Right to Information Act.
  73. 24. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 403–405.
  74. 27. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 471–472.
  75. Regional differentiation in India. W: Bharadwaj, Krishna: Industry & agriculture in India since independence. Oxford University Press, 1991, s. pp. 189–199. ISBN 0-19-564394-1.
  76. Sachs, D. Jeffrey; Bajpai, Nirupam and Ramiah, Ananthi. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India. , 2002. 
  77. Kurian, N.J.: Regional disparities in india. [dostęp 2005].
  78. Share of Top Investing Countries in FDI Inflows. [dostęp 2005].
  79. Much of India's FDI is routed through Mauritius, because both countries have an agreement to avoid double taxation. India to sign free trade agreement with Mauritius. [dostęp 2005].
  80. Srinivasan, T.N.. Economic Reforms and Global Integration. , 2002. 
  81. 46. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 767,772–76.
  82. India & the World Trade Organization. [dostęp 2005].
  83. Forex reserves up by $88mn. [dostęp 2005].
  84. 47. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 789.
  85. 47. W: Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M.: Indian Economy. s. 786,790.
  86. Middle class in India has arrived
  87. The Hinduonline

References[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Szablon:Explain-inote

Books
  • Nehru, Jawaharlal: Discovery of India. Penguin Books, 1946. ISBN 0-14-303103-1.
  • Kumar, Dharma (Ed.): The Cambridge Economic History of India (Volume 2) c. 1757 - c. 1970. Penguin Books, 1982.
  • Sankaran, S: Indian Economy: Problems, Policies and Development. Margham Publications, 1994. ISBN.
  • Roy, Tirthankar: The Economic History of India. Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-565154-5.
  • Regional differentiation in India. W: Bharadwaj, Krishna: Industry & agriculture in India since independence. Oxford University Press, 1991, s. pp. 189–199. ISBN 0-19-564394-1.
Papers
Government publications
News
Articles

External links[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Wikimedia Commons

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