Ewolucja płazów

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Ewolucja płazów – różnej wielkości i wyglądu płazy żyją od 370 mln lat. Ichtiostega miał wiele cech rybich, Archegosauridae przypominały zapewne zwyczajami krokodyle, a sejmuria czy diadektes były podobne do prymitywnych gadów. Pierwsze płazy miały na tyle słabe kończyny tylne, że musiały je wlec tak jak foki i uchatki. Składały jajeczka, czyli skrzek w wodzie i w wodzie polowały.

W czasie permu dominację przejęły płazy (po rybach). Naukowcy uważają, że żyło wtedy ok. 3000 gatunków płazów; zostało ich odkryte jedynie 212. Obecnie żyje ok. 5000 płazów.

Współczesne płazy pochodzą od lepospondyli lub temnospondyli, a być może stanowią grupę difiletyczną – płazy beznogie pochodzą od lepospondyli, a pozostałe od temnospondyli[1].

Kladogram według Tree of Life[2]


Elginerpeton






Metaxygnathus



Ventastega





Acanthostega



Ichthyostega




Hynerpeton




Tulerpeton




Crassigyrinus




Baphetidae




Colosteidae




Temnospondyli




Whatcheeria




Gephyrostegidae



Embolomeri




Seymouriamorpha




Westlothiana















Kladogram według Palaeos.com[3]:

Tetrapoda


Acanthostega




Ichthyostega




Crassigyrinidae




ColosteidaeGreererpeton





Baphetidae


Tetrapoda*
Temnospondyli

Edopoidea




EuskeliaLissamphibia (współczesne płazy)



Limnarchia





Lepospondyli

Microsauria




Lysorophia




Adelogyrinidae




Nectridia



Aïstopoda






Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauroidea

Gephyrostegidae



Embolomeri



Batrachosauria

Seymouriamorpha


Cotylosauria


Diadectomorpha



Amniota (owodniowce)















Kladogram według Andersona i in. (2008)[4]


Acanthostega





Proterogyrinus




Seymouria baylorensis




Limnoscelis (diadektomorf)


Lepospondyli

Utaherpeton





Asaphestera




Tuditanus





Hapsidoparion



Saxonerpeton







Rhynchonkos



Eocaecilia (kopalny płaz beznogi)




Batropetes






Pantylus



Stegotretus







Cardiocephalus sternbergi




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Pelodosotis



Micraroter











Microbrachis




Adelogyrinus




Scincosaurus





Sauropleura




Ptyonius



Urocordylus







Brachydectes




Oestocephalus



Phlegethontia







Diceratosaurus



{{Expansion depth limit exceeded|Diplocaulus

Diploceraspis

}}





Keraterpeton















Temnospondyli


Balanerpeton



Dendrerpeton







Ecolsonia



Acheloma




Tambachia






Branchiosauridae



Micromelerpetontidae






Tersomius



Micropholis





Eoscopus




Platyrhinops




Amphibamus




Doleserpeton




Gerobatrachus


Batrachia


Anura (płazy bezogonowe)



Triadobatrachus





Caudata (płazy ogoniaste)













Eryops




Greererpeton




Przypisy[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  1. Lepospondyli: Overview (ang.). Palaeos.com. [dostęp 2009-04-12].
  2. Terrestrial Vertebrates (ang.). Tree of Life. [dostęp 2009-04-13].
  3. Tetrapoda: Overview (ang.). Palaeos. [dostęp 2012-08-15]. [zarchiwizowane z tego adresu (2010-12-20)].
  4. Jason S. Anderson, Robert R. Reisz, Diane Scott, Nadia B. Fröbisch i Stuart S. Sumida. A stem batrachian from the Early Permian of Texas and the origin of frogs and salamanders. „Nature”. 453, s. 515–518, 2008. DOI: 10.1038/nature06865 (ang.).