Czas przyszły w przeszłości w języku angielskim

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Czas przyszły w przeszłości w języku angielskim – zbiór konstrukcji gramatycznych w języku angielskim, służących do opisywania przyszłych wydarzeń z punktu widzenia w przeszłości.

Future in the Past jest czasem, który traktuje przyszłość, czyli zdarzenia, które jeszcze nie miały miejsca, z przeszłego punktu widzenia[1]. Wyraża te same relacje czasowe co formy przyszłe, tyle że z przeszłej perspektywy: In 2004 I arrived to the town, where I would spend fifteen yearsW roku 2004 przyjechałem do miasta, w którym miałem spędzić następne 15 lat. Wydarzenia opisywane w ten sposób nie odnoszą się w żaden sposób do teraźniejszości, mogły nastąpić bądź nie w chwili wypowiadania zdania.

Przyszłość w przeszłości może być wyrażana w następujący sposób:

  • konstrukcją was/were to[2]: Henry, who joined the army in 1788, was to become captain in 1808Henry, który wstąpił do wojska w roku 1788, został kapitanem w r. 1808. That was an event which would be remembered To było zdarzenie, które zostanie zapamiętane.
  • konstrukcją was going to[2]: Everyone was excited, because the new theatre was going to be openedWszyscy byli podnieceni, bo miano otworzyć nowy teatr.
  • Czasem Past Progressive[2]: She left earlier today, because she was taking the train to KirunaWyszła wcześniej, bo jechałą pociągiem do Kiruny.

Czas przyszły w przeszłości[edytuj]

Graficzne wyobrażenie Future in the Past
Graficzne wyobrażenie Future Perfect in the Past

Czas Future in the past we wszystkich formach używa się głównie w narracji. Formy tego czasu są pochodnymi czasów przyszłych i zachowują one swoje znaczenie, różnica polega na zastąpieniu czasownika modalnego will przez would[3].

Aspekt Czas przyszły Czas przyszły w przeszłości
Prosty He will watch He would watch
Postępujący He will be watching He would be watching
Przeszły He will have watched He would have watched
Przeszły postępujący He will have been watching He would have been watching
  • Future Simple: The journey will be dangerousPodróż będzie niebezpieczna. Ale: He said the journey would be dangerousPowiedział, że podróż będzie niebezpieczna.
  • Future Progressive: At three o'clock I shall be watching TVO trzeciej będę oglądał telewizję ale He mentioned that at three o'clock he would be watching TVWspomniał, że o trzeciej będzie oglądał telewizję.
  • Future Perfect: I`ll have seen the doctor by Friday Do piątku pójdę do lekarza. Ale He assured he would haave met the doctor by Friday.
  • Future Perfect Continuous: By the end of this year I`ll have been learning English for 30 years ale She knew that By the end of this year I`d have been learning English for 30 yearsOna wiedziała, że gdy rok minie, będę uczył się angielskiego od 30 lat.

Formy gramatyczne[edytuj]

Future Simple in the Past (Czas przyszły prosty w przeszłości)[edytuj]

Osoba Forma twierdząca Forma pytająca Forma przecząca Skrócona odpowiedź
twierdząca
Skrócona odpowiedź
przecząca
1 sg I would/should read would/should I read? I would/should not read Yes, I would/should No, I would/should not
2 sg + pl you would read would you read? you would not read Yes, you would No, you would not
3 sg he/she/it would read would he/she/it read? he/she/it has not read Yes, he/she/it would No, he/she/it would not
1 pl weI would/should read would/should we read? I would/should not read Yes, we would/should No, we would/should not
3 pl they would read would they read? they would not read Yes, they would No, they would not

Strona bierna czasu:

Osoba Forma twierdząca Forma pytająca Forma przecząca Skrócona odpowiedź
twierdząca
Skrócona odpowiedź
przecząca
1 sg I would/should be seen would/should I be seen? I would/should not be seen Yes, I would/should No, I would/should not
2 sg + pl you would be seen would you be seen? you would not be seen Yes, you would No, you would not
3 sg he/she/it would be seen would he/she/it be seen? he/she/it has not be seen Yes, he/she/it would No, he/she/it would not
1 pl we would/should be seen would/should we be seen? I would/should not be seen Yes, we would/should No, we would/should not
3 pl they would be seen would they be seen? they would not be seen Yes, they would No, they would not


Future Continuous in the Past (Czas przyszły postępujący w przeszłości)[edytuj]

Osoba Forma twierdząca Forma pytająca Forma przecząca Skrócona odpowiedź
twierdząca
Skrócona odpowiedź
przecząca
1 sg I would/should be reading would/should I be reading? I would/should not be reading Yes, I would/should No, I would/should not
2 sg + pl You would be reading would you be reading? you would not be reading Yes, you would No, you would not
3 sg he/she/it would be reading would he/she/it be reading? he/she/it would not be reading Yes, he/she/it would No, he/she/it would not
1 pl we would/should be reading would/should we be reading? we would/should not be reading Yes, we would/should No, we would/should not
3 pl they would be reading would they be reading? they would not be reading Yes, they would No, they would not

Odmiana w stronie biernej:

Osoba Forma twierdząca Forma pytająca Forma przecząca Skrócona odpowiedź
twierdząca
Skrócona odpowiedź
przecząca
1 sg I would/should be being watched would/should I be being watched? I would/should not be being watched Yes, I would/should No, I would/should not
2 sg + pl You would be being watched would you be being watched? you would not be being watched Yes, you would No, you would not
3 sg he/she/it would be being watched would he/she/it be being watched? he/she/it would not be being watched Yes, he/she/it would No, he/she/it would not
1 pl we would/should be being watched would/should we be being watched? we would/should not be being watched Yes, we would/should No, we would/should not
3 pl they would be being watched would they be being watched? they would not be being watched Yes, they would No, they would not

Future Petfect in the Past (Czas zaprzeszły w przyszłości)[edytuj]

Osoba Forma twierdząca Forma pytająca Forma przecząca Skrócona odpowiedź
twierdząca
Skrócona odpowiedź
przecząca
1 sg I would/should have read would/should I have read? I would/should not have read Yes, I would/should No, I would/should not
2 sg + pl you would have read would you have read? you would not have read Yes, you would No, you would not
3 sg he/she/it has have read has he/she/it have read? he/she/it has not have read Yes, he/she/it has No, he/she/it has not
1 pl weI would/should have read would/should we have read? I would/should not have read Yes, we would/should No, we would/should not
3 pl they would have read would they have read? they would not have read Yes, they would No, they would not

Odmiana w stronie biernej:

Osoba Forma twierdząca Forma pytająca Forma przecząca Skrócona odpowiedź
twierdząca
Skrócona odpowiedź
przecząca
1 sg I would/should have been seen would/should I have been seen? I would/should not have been seen Yes, I would/should No, I would/should not
2 sg + pl you would have been seen would you have been seen? you would not have been seen Yes, you would No, you would not
3 sg he/she/it would have been seen would he/she/it have been seen? he/she/it would not have been seen Yes, he/she/it would No, he/she/it has would
1 pl weI would/should have been seen would/should we have been seen? I would/should not have been seen Yes, we would/should No, we would/should not
3 pl they would have been seen would they have been seen? they would not have been seen Yes, they would No, they would not

Future Perfect Progressive in the Past (czas przyszły postępujący w przeszłości)[edytuj]

Osoba Forma twierdząca Forma pytająca Forma przecząca Skrócona odpowiedź
twierdząca
Skrócona odpowiedź
przecząca
1 sg I would/should have been reading would/should I have been reading? I would/should not have been reading Yes, I would/should No, I would/should not
2 sg + pl You would have been reading would you have been reading? you would not have been reading Yes, you would No, you would not
3 sg he/she/it has been reading has he/she/it been reading? he/she/it has not been reading Yes, he/she/it has No, he/she/it has not
1 pl weI would/should have been reading would/should we have been reading? I would/should not have been reading Yes, we would/should No, we would/should not
3 pl they would have been reading would they have been reading? they would not have been reading Yes, they would No, they would not

Przypisy

  1. Michael Swan: Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, s. 81. ISBN 978-0-19-442098-3.
  2. a b c Geoffrey Leech: An A – Z of English Grammar and Usage. Harlow: Longman, 2001, s. 380-381. ISBN 0-582-40574-2.
  3. Geoffrey Leech: An A – Z of English Grammar and Usage. Harlow: Longman, 2001, s. 603. ISBN 0-582-40574-2.