Lista form słabych w języku angielskim

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Formy słabe w języku angielskim – formy nieakcentowane, występujące najczęściej w złożeniach czasownik + not, zaimek osobowy + czasownik posiłkowy lub modalny.

Czasownik z przeczeniem not[edytuj | edytuj kod]

Czasowniki posiłkowe[edytuj | edytuj kod]

To be[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  • are + not → aren't /ɑːnt/
  • is + not → isn't /ɪznt/
  • was + not → wasn't /wɒznt/
  • were + not → weren't wɜːnt/[1]

To have[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  • have + not → haven't /hævnt/
  • has + not → hasn't /ˈhæznt/
  • had + not → hadn't /ˈhædnt/[2]

To do[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  • do + not → don't /dəʊnt/
  • does + not → doesn't /dʌznt/
  • did + not → didn't /dɪdnt/[3]

Czasowniki modalne[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  • will + not → won't /wəʊnt/[4]
  • shall + not → shan't /ʃɑːnt/
  • can + not → can't /kɑːnt/
  • must + not → mustn't /ˈmʌsnt/
  • may + not → mayn't /'meɪnt/ forma bardzo rzadka[5]
  • would + not → wouldn't /ˈwʊdnt/[6]
  • should + not → shouldn't /ʃʊdnt/
  • might + not → mightn't /'maɪtnt/
  • ought (to) + not → oughtn't /'ɔːtnt/
  • dare + not → daren't /deənt/
  • used + not → usedn't /ju:snt/
  • need + not → needn' /ni:dnt/t[5]

Zaimek + czasownik[edytuj | edytuj kod]

to be[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  • I + am → I'm /aɪm/
  • you + are → you're /jə/
  • he + is → he's /his/
  • she + is → she's /ʃiz/
  • it + is → it's /ɪts/
  • we + are → we're /wɪə/
  • they + are → they're /ðeə/[1]
  • there + is → there's /ðeəz/

have[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  • I + have → I've /aɪv/
  • you + have → you've /juːv/
  • he + has → he's /hiz/
  • she + has → she's /ʃiz/
  • it + has → it's /ɪts/
  • we + have → we've /wi:v/
  • they + have → they've[2] /ðeɪv/
  • there + has → there's /ðeəz/
  • I + had → I'd /aɪd/
  • you + had → you'd /ju:d/
  • he + had → he'd /hi:d/
  • she + had → she'd /ʃiːd/
  • we + had → we'd /wi:d/
  • they + had → they'd[2] /ðeɪd/
  • there + had → there'd /ðeəd/

Czasowniki modalne[edytuj | edytuj kod]

will, shall[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  • I + will/shall → I'll /aɪl/
  • you + will/shall → you'll /ju:l/
  • he + will/shall → he'll /hi:l/
  • she + will/shall → she'll /ʃiːl/
  • it + will/shall → it'll /ɪtl/
  • we + will/shall → we'll /wi:l/
  • they + will/shall → they'll[4] /ðeɪl/
  • there + will/shall → there'll /ðeəl/

would[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  • I + would → I'd /aɪd/
  • you + would → you'd /ju:d/
  • he + would → he'd /hi:d/
  • she + would → she'd /ʃiːd/
  • we + would → we'd /wi:d/
  • they + would → they'd[6] /ðeɪd/
  • there + would → there'd /ðeəd/

Inne[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  • Let + us → let's /lets/

W bardzo potocznej angielszczyźnie formy czasowników be, have + not mogą przyjmować formę ain't /eɪnt/[5].

Przypisy[edytuj | edytuj kod]

  1. a b Geoffrey Leech: An A – Z of English Grammar and Usage. Harlow: Longman, 2001, s. 60-63. ISBN 0-582-40574-2.
  2. a b c Geoffrey Leech: An A – Z of English Grammar and Usage. Harlow: Longman, 2001, s. 190-192. ISBN 0-582-40574-2.
  3. Geoffrey Leech: An A – Z of English Grammar and Usage. Harlow: Longman, 2001, s. 128=132. ISBN 0-582-40574-2.
  4. a b Geoffrey Leech: An A – Z of English Grammar and Usage. Harlow: Longman, 2001, s. 592-593. ISBN 0-582-40574-2.
  5. a b c Michael Swan: Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, s. 81. ISBN 978-0-19-442098-3.
  6. a b Geoffrey Leech: An A – Z of English Grammar and Usage. Harlow: Longman, 2001, s. 601-603. ISBN 0-582-40574-2.